Industrial Ecology Simulation Exercise

Subject: UFTO Note – Industrial Ecology Simulation Exercise
Date: Mon, 24 Mar 1997
From: Ed Beardsworth

| ** UFTO ** Edward Beardsworth ** Consultant
| 951 Lincoln Ave. tel 415-328-5670
| Palo Alto CA 94301-3041 fax 415-328-5675

Industrial Ecology Simulation Exercise

UFTO has received an invitation (see below) to an event on May 20-22, in which senior executive strategic planners and thinkers will participate in a simulation exercise in Industrial Ecology (IE). IE is a new and emerging field which views industrial activities and the environment as an interacting whole, rather than as competing forces. The focus will be long range and strategic, rather than on near term details or specifics.

The program is part of a series of “Prosperity Games” intiated under the auspices of the National Research Council, in its effort to define “Research Priorities for the 21st Century.” The National Forum on Science and Technology Goals sees linkage to societal environmental goals as key.

Ref: Environmental Science & Technology/News, Vol 31, no. 1, 1997, pp
20-21, 26
Also see:

For information about Prosperity Games, see:

The organizers, which include representatives from Sandia, Livermore and Los Alamos, would welcome having someone from the utility industry attend, since “resource providers” (includes energy) is a category of player they’ve already identified.

If someone from your company is interested, contact Dr. Marshall Berman at Sandia, as indicated in the attached letter, at 505-843-4229; e-mail:


March 24, 1997

We invite you to participate in an Industrial Ecology Prosperity Game at the Hyatt Dulles Hotel in Herndon, Virginia, beginning at 4:00 PM on May 20 (includes dinner), and ending at 5:00 PM on May 22, 1997.

This event is a high-level executive simulation in which you will join with your peers from industry, government and academia to explore how IE might be used to help our nation meet its economic and environmental goals. In this simulation, you will explore the current real world and create exciting alternative futures.

Industrial Ecology is an emerging field recently identified as one of six “Research Priorities for the 21st Century” by the National Research Council. Thus, this game is especially timely. IE views industrial activities and the environment as an interactive whole, and potentially offers a way to meet both economic and environmental goals, rather than pitting one against the other. This Prosperity Game will explore the IE concept, the potential benefits of applying IE, roles for various organizations in making IE a reality, and collaborations needed to realize the benefits of IE.

Prosperity Games are an outgrowth of move/countermove and seminar war games. They are executive-level interactive simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of economic, political, and social arenas. The simulations are high-level exercises of discretion, judgment, planning, and negotiating skills; they are not computer games. The specific objectives of this game are to:
– Develop an understanding of what Industrial Ecology is.
– Develop an understanding of how Industrial Ecology can help meet the needs of the stakeholders and the nation.
– Explore the role of government in an integrated Industrial Ecology effort.
– Identify and initiate follow-on activities to promote findings and policies generated in the game.

Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories are sponsoring this Prosperity Game to explore the roles of industry, government, universities, and laboratories in this exciting new field. Players have been invited from all stakeholder groups, including the labs, universities, industry, Congress, local governments, foreign governments, DOE, other federal agencies, the US public, and finance. Three scenarios will be used to provide context and focus for the players to explore the actions required to create the desired future; they will address the global and national environment, as well as a local focus on the Rio Grande border region.

To date, fifteen Prosperity Games have explored issues in electronics manufacturing, environmental technology, global economic competitiveness, university business school education, diversity and cultural change, biomedical technologies, entrepreneurship, and the future of the national labs.

In addition to the specific objectives of the sponsors, players benefit directly from the general objectives of all Prosperity Games:

– Develop partnerships, teamwork, and a spirit of cooperation among industry, government, laboratory and university stakeholders.
– Increase awareness of the needs, desires and motivations of the different stakeholders.
– Bring conflict into the open and manage it productively.
– Explore long-term strategies and policies.
– Provide input for possible future legislation.
– Stimulate thinking.
– Provide a major learning experience.

Please join us in exploring the opportunities presented by this simulation and in sharing its present and future benefits with your peers.

For additional information about the game, please contact Dr. Marshall Berman (505-843-4229; e-mail:, or Dr. Kathleen Schulz (505-845-9879; e-mail: Information about meeting arrangements is available from Gladys Shaw at 505-843-4227; Please fax the enclosed form to 505-843-4228 by April 10, 1997 to confirm your attendance at the game.

TECH NUGGET–Knowledge Preservation

Subject: UFTO TECH NUGGET–Knowledge Preservation
Date: Tue, 06 Aug 1996 14:42:43 -0700
From: Ed Beardsworth <>

(Dear UFTO members: A number of you have urged me to send items electronically instead of by mail (the monthly “Bulletins”). Please let me know if you agree, or if you still want the hardcopy in the mail…)



Utilities have been looking for this one for quite a while. The Knowledge Preservation Project at Sandia National Labs is a method of preserving and retrieving video recorded knowledge of key soon-to-retire personnel. Sandia developed the methodology and software to help protect vital know-how regarding the nuclear weapons stockpile, and are getting interest in industries ranging from medical to legal to chip-making (where the problem is employee burn-out!), to provide access to the information and for use in training.

Sandia has put together the whole package, from how to do the interview preparation and recording to the database management system. They’re in discussions with a probable commercializer, and welcome opportunities to explore new applications.

Contacts: Keith Johnstone, (505) 844-7633
Carmen Ward, Project Leader (505) 845-9824

(The attached file repeats the above text and gives more details–suitable for electronic forwarding. Let me know if you have any trouble downloading it.)

| *** UFTO *** Edward Beardsworth * Consultant |

| 951 Lincoln Ave. tel 415-328-5670 |

| Palo Alto CA 94301-3041 fax 415-328-5675 |


Utilities have been looking for this one for quite a while. TheKnowledge Preservation Project at Sandia National Labs is a method of preserving and retrieving video recorded knowledge of key soon-to-retire personnel. Sandia developed the methodology and software to help protect vital know-how regarding the nuclear weapons stockpile, and are getting interest in industries ranging from medical to legal to chip-making (where the problem is employee burn-out!), to provide access to the information and for use in training

Sandia has put together the whole package, from how to do the interview preparation and recording to the database management system. They’re in discussions with a probable commercializer, and welcome opportunities to explore new applications.


Summary Description (prepared by Sandia)

The Knowledge Preservation Project is designed to record on video tape the knowledge and experience of key nuclear weapon design engineers. The project attempts to capture all aspects of perishable, undocumented, nuclear weapon design, testing, and manufacturing information. Areas of discussion include technologies, components, materials, systems, and management/political interactions (as they impacted the weapons program). During the course of an interview, we attempt to define the state of technology and the technical challenges at a point in time. We probe into how problems were solved, how many solutions were proposed, what they were, and why one was selected over the others. We explore the reasons that various solutions failed and elicit suggestions for the future. We frequently ask individuals to discuss the best ideas they had that no one would listen to. The process is as follows;

Information is obtained during individual interviews and panel discussions. For individual interviews, the interviewee is asked to include 2 colleagues of his choice in the interview. The dialog established among them stimulates recollection and provides a measure of information quality control. The video taping takes place in a studio environment. Individual interviews have lasted from 2 to 18 hours (in 2 hour increments). Panel discussions focus on technologies and systems (e.g., radiation hardened electronics, B-61 safety and electrical system, etc.). A panel may consist of up to 8 individuals and is video taped before an audience. Audience participation is encouraged and also video taped. Panel discussions generally last for about 6 hours.

To date we have completed approximately 60 individual interviews and 11 panels for a total of nearly 400 hours of video. Nearly all the video is classified. The project is ongoing. DOE/HQ has asked us to consider including key Headquarters personnel and production facility personnel in the project.

We have developed the means to manage and instantly access any specific information contained within the 100’s or 1000’s of hours of video. The process is called Relevant Point of Access Video (RePAV). Following is a brief description of the process;

The video tape is digitized and compressed (200:1) according to the MPEG-1 Standard, and stored on a network server. The audio track is transcribed to a text document, and full-text indexed by any information management system — we used ìfree-wareî taken off the Internet. The audio text is linked to the digital video files in 2 minute time code intervals. Access to the video information is provided by the information management system. The user simply queries the system. Any videos that meet the search criteria are identified to the user who can access the video with a mouse click. The VHS quality video is displayed immediately on the users PC and the key search words will be spoken within 2 minutes. (The 2 minute interval is arbitrary at this point and has not been optimized.)

The full potential of this system will emerge when it is integrated into a central knowledge base with hyper-links to reports, memos, engineering drawings, other video, data, computer codes, etc. We have completed the development of the time and image dependent hyper-linking tools.

Contacts: Keith Johnstone, (505) 844-7633
Carmen Ward, Project Leader (505) 845-9824

Bulletin #15

UFTO Bulletin #15

October 31, 1995
To: UFTO Members:

. . in this issue: . . . . . . . . .

Many many things – please review carefully

1. “Fossil 1.0” — This is a first very rough start at the “sort-by-topic” objective of Year 2 of UFTO. I’m calling it a “Topic Resource File”. It’s a simple cut & paste from all previously released UFTO reports, showing any material that might be interesting to somebody in the fossil generation business. Try it out on your fossil people.
– Is this helpful?
– What more/different should we try next (in terms of format, editting and content)?
– What other “Topics” would you like to see?

We’re also considering various electronic schemes. Please think about how you want to use/file/store/distribute UFTO information, and let me know what you think might work for you, and any suggestions or ideas you have on the subject. (What do your information specialists suggest? Are there any new tools and techniques?)

2. Speaking of Topics — UFTO is co-sponsoring an”Electrotechnologies Conference”, March 27-29, 1996 in Tampa FL, with Electrical World and the ElectroTechnology Marketing Group. I sent you an email about this on October 30, to see if any of you want to be a utility sponsor. The deadline for first ad to appear in the December issue of Electrical World is Nov. 1. If you want more details now, let me know.

This is a great opportunity to learn about electrotechnologies that are out there, and to promote your own. It’s also a great way for us to do one of our UFTO “topical conferences”. We can have our own session the day before or the day after…. thoughts? reactions?

3. “Technology Strategy Benchmarking” — A couple of our member utilities have asked me to do a study of how various utilities are handling new technology, and where it fits in their business strategies. (Note that we did not say “R&D Benchmarking”!) They wondered if any of their fellow UFTO members would like to cofund it.

This would be along similar lines to the project I did for PG&E two years ago (now out-of-date, with so many changes since then) that you’ve all seen. How are efforts funded, organized and measured, and what is their business purpose? The survey will draw from a variety of primary and secondary sources, and will not rely primarily on interviews. Results to be delivered by early December.

This project is separate from UFTO* . If you are interested in cofunding it and sharing in the results, the cost will be $2000, which can be offset by designating some of your utility’s individual UFTO consulting time and/or by contributing “in-kind” information. Please let me know by 11/6 if you want to participate.

*(Unless there’s a unanimous vote to include it in place of other UFTO activities)

4. Technology 2005 — I attended the big NASA sponsored tech transfer conference in Chicago last week, and used the opportunity to begin to figure out how to tackle the Dept of Defense, NASA and the Dept. of Agriculture, and to determine key contacts and information resources for each of them. Manyinteresting technologies were there to be discovered. See the attached sampler.

Other highlights of the show–numerous innovative transportation technologies, such as new engines, injectors and turbine designs from Australia. DOE Ames Lab may turn out to have some things we’ll want, like a way to reduce transformer core losses that’s much easier than amorphous metal, and practical magnetic refrigeration. The Nevada Test Site wants your business with its unique remote indoor and outdoor test facilities and sensor and detector systems. The Kansas City Plant excels at manufacturing, and is starting a new initiative called Factory America–they’re sending more information.

5. Sandia’s Russian-U.S. Fuel cell conference in September was a huge success. The Russians have an operating 100kW PEM powered vehicle. Gazprom is funding development of a small PEM unit to be placed along its gas pipelines for cathodic protection. A U.S. company is quietly negotiating for rights to the PEM technology (and it’s not Ballard or GRI!). Another company is going after some of the Russian Solid Oxide work. Proceedings from the conference should be available in a few weeks.

6. INEL Fuel Cell — INEL has a unique approach to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells…They weren’t quite ready to talk about this item when we released the INEL report…..

INEL Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Several novel innovations have been demonstrated with the goal of making a 20-100 kW solid oxide fuel cell for disbursed power applications such as remote ranches, factories and homes. The innovations are a cell interconnect layer and fuel manifold that is also a catalyst for internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels, furnace brazing between cells, and layered thin film fabrication via liquid injected plasma. Several patents have been filed, but a fairly low profile has been maintained vis a vis the fuel cell community.

INEL is looking for cooperative research partners who will assist in funding research. INEL has not licensed any intellectual property or distribution rights. These would go to CRADA partners.

Contact Paul Lessing, Principal Investigator 208-526-8776 or Dennis Cheney 208-526-9557.

7. I’ll be going to Brookhaven and Savannah River in the next 4-6 weeks.

Administrative Stuff

a. Lab Contacts: Both of our original contacts at Argonne have left, and our man at Livermore changed jobs. An updated list will go out in the next mailing. Stand by for more changes in the days ahead.
b. Contacts at PNL — Please check your copy of the PNL report to see if there’s a Page 14 “Contacts”. I’ll send you one if it’s missing.



• AMTEC (alkali metal thermal to electric conversion) has been under development by NASA Lewis for a long time. With a sealed unit as small as a D-cell, or much larger, a startup company says it’s ready for bonafide commercial applications, starting with remote power generation (replacing less efficient thermoelectric units). Put them in a gas furnace, and homes could stay warm in spite of blizzard-caused power outages.

• CO to CO2 catalyst operates at room temperature. NASA needed to save the power used to heat catalysts on satellites. It also forms the basis of a very cheap CO sensor. A startup seeking funds has exclusive rights for sensors, firefighter masks and other key applications, and a possible shot at automotive exhaust. Rochester Gas & Electric has the rights for air treatment. (Think about smart buildings applications.)

• Bolt Analyzer — Patented PC notebook based system using commercially available load sensor and torque wrench attachments. . NASA Goddard is looking for a commercializer. Analyzes bolted joint coeff. of friction and stress, does non-destructive testing of threaded fasteners, and can verify lubricants, etc, reducing preload error in bolt tightening.

• Ultrasonic Leak Detector — handheld unit used by NASA during pre launch, distinguishes high frequency acoustic signature of jet-type leaks (non-laminar flow) from noisy background. NASA looking for a commercializer.

• Fiber-Optic radiation dosimeter — Naval Research Lab developed this for naval reactors, and wants to it to the commercial world. Excellent for hot cells, confinement, and storage monitoring.

• Oil Dialysis — electrostatic oil cleaning has applications in lubricating, hydraulic, insulating, and fuel oil. Units are on the market. It gets oil cleaner than new, removing submicron particles. Oil lasts longer, reducing disposal volume. Already tested in tap changers by two utilities. Can decontaminate radioactive oil. Business plan/offer memo available.

• Turbogenerator — a 24 kW unit weighs only 165 lbs. and could be mass produced for $2000. The turbine and the generator are on the same rotor shaft (the only moving part), and it burns diesel, natural gas or gasoline. Low emissions. Orginally designed for a hybrid vehicle application, it may represent a breakthrough for distributed generation. A number of units are in operation. There are a few unanswered questions, e.g. longevity, reliability, and variable duty performance.

(Disclosure: I have or may seek a finders agreement with some of these companies. EB)

Bulletin #11 – Various & Miscellaneous FYIs

UFTO Bulletin #11

August 7, 1995

To: UFTO Members:

. . in this issue: . . . . . . . . .


BONUS ISSUE: Various & Miscellaneous FYIs

  •  Anderson Consulting prepared a slick report called “The Role of Broadband Communications in the Utility of the Future”, sponsored by a cable consortium and themselves. Call Tony Fakonas at 415-546-8599 to request a copy.
  • Lawrence Berkeley Lab’s Energy Analysis Department just released their 1994 Annual Report. I’ve already given your names and addresses to them and asked that they put you on the mailing list for it and their newsletter. Call Karen Olson if you want to change who it goes to in your company. 510-486-5974
  • Does “BMP” mean anything to you? It stands for “Best Manufacturing Practices”, a program started by the Navy. They’ve taken survey teams into nearly 70 major companies, and prepared a highly detailed assessment of their processes, identifying any “best” practices they find. They just published a report on Sandia National Lab, so we can get another perspective about SNL. They have reports on all of the places they’ve studied, and a program of regional workshops, a free online database, and other kinds of outreach. Something for your industrial reps, or anyone involved in benchmarking or quality. I’d bet BMP would love to survey a utility. For information, call 1-800-4267.
  • GRI goes out of its way to make information available. To get a free subscription to their magazine, GRID, call Carrie Holmes at 312-399-8100. It’s very worthwhile, especially for electric-only utilities, to keep an eye on what they’re doing, particularly in end-use technologies. (Watch out for your commercial cooling load!)
  • Technology 2005 , the 6th national technology transfer conference and exposition, will be October 24-26, 1995, at McCormick Place in Chicago. It’s worth at least one day to go through the exhibits. Call 212-490-3999 for registration info. (I may attend as part of UFTO2. FYI, as of today 4 companies have said they’re renewing.)
  • Attention Geo/Data/AMFM/Mapping fans: Here in Silicon Valley, there’s a project called BADGER (bay area digital geo resource), which is setting up an Internet accessible geographic visualization system for the area. The system will include a shareable base map, various attribute layers, and three prototype applications: vegetation management, fire hazard risk assessment, and storm water discharge pollution management. Check out the demo to be posted at Call Michael McRay, Smart Valley, Inc., 415-857-6968, (or me) if you want more information.
  • “As Built” drawings and updating can be a major hassle. A little company called Eos Systems in Vancouver BC has a product that gets 3-d cad data from ordinary photos, and they need help to explore utility applications. Let me know if you want to pursue this.
  • Recommended reading: almost the entire July 1 issue of Public Utilities Fortnightly….


Bulletin #10 – Sandia Report INEL Batteries

UFTO Bulletin #10

July 27, 1995

To: UFTO Subscribers:

. . in this issue: . . . . . . . . .

Sandia Report INEL Batteries

  1. The final UFTO report for SANDIA NATIONAL LABS is enclosed. Make certain your industrial marketing people take a good look at it, along with everybody else. There’s tremendous expertise here in robotics, reliability, processes, manufacturing, renewables, etc. etc.(Here’s a mischievous thought — do reps ever call on their own utility, and treat it like any other major customer? Just think of all the process, materials, etc. knowledge they have that a utility’s operations could benefit from.)
  2. The latest on Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEL)…….
    – I’ll be visiting there on August 21 and 22, for the full UFTO treatment.
    – A bit more detail about the Intelligent Distribution Management System (IDMS) is attached. (I’d been calling it IDS.) The people at INEL say they’ve built a next-generation SCADA system that is way ahead of anything currently available. You and your company’s experts will be the judge. Don’t hesitate to call them up and get started. They have a full system in operation, and will be taking it apart in October to do the actual installation, scheduled to take until March 1996. So, you might get a better show-and-tell in September, though no doubt they’ll be able to demonstrate the functionality in later months.
  3. I went to the Utility Battery Group (UBG ) meeting and the 5th International Conf. on Batteries for Utility Storage. Just half of the UFTO utilities are active in the UBG, tracking developments closely.
    What are the rest of you doing in this area? So much of the attention to batteries is focused on EVs that potentially significant developments in power quality, UPS, and T&D system enhancement can get overlooked. (One factor–too often “power quality” people don’t talk to “storage” people.) Vendors are taking orders for all kinds of systems, and more are in development.Let me know if you want info from the conferences, and we’ll try to arrange something. One bit of information you may want to have– the UBG is going to incorporate. They’re establishing a new membership policy, and they’re gearing up to deliver some informational products. Utilities can join for $1,000 .

    The Sandia report discusses the DOE utility battery program (see page 4).

  4. Reminder: DOE’s Annual Peer Review of the Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems Alexandria VA, August 1,2.

Also, Sandia is hosting a Joint US/Russian workshop on Fuel Cells, Sept 26-28. Let me know if you didn’t get a copy of the announcement, and if you want me to attend on your behalf (as part of UFTO, or separately).


Technology Transfer Opportunities – Sandia



Final Report

Technology Transfer Opportunities in the National Laboratories

Sandia National Laboratories

Albuquerque, New Mexico

& Livermore, CA

July 1995

Prepared for:

Utility Federal Technology Opportunities (UFTO)


Edward Beardsworth



This report is part of a series examining technology opportunities at National Laboratories of possible interest to electric utilities




1. Summary
1. Sandia Organization
2. Sandia Technologies & Programs
11. Sandia Contacts


This report is proprietary and confidential. It is for internal use by personnel of companies that are subscribers in the UFTO multi-client program. It is not to be otherwise copied or distributed except as authorized in writing.



This report details findings about technology and technology transfer opportunities at the Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) that might be of strategic interest to electric utilities. It is based on visits to Sandia in March 1995, as part of the UFTO multiclient project.


Noting the tremendous scope of research underway in the research facilities of the U.S. government, and a very strong impetus on the government’s part to foster commercial partnering with industry and applications of the technology it has developed, the UFTO program has been established as a multi-client study of the opportunities thus afforded electric utilities.

Sandia Organization

Sandia began in 1945 as a small part of Los Alamos Laboratory, and in 1949 became a separate laboratory managed by AT&T. (The University of California, which manages Los Alamos, did not want to become involved in the actual manufacture of weapons.) Due to AT&T’s culture and management approach, Sandia grew up with an organizational style similar to Bell Labs, and quite different from the other national labs. There is a line management structure, and from the beginning, a strong “industrial R&D” approach that emphasizes practical results and getting them into use.

AT&T has managed Sandia (as a public service, for $1 per year) from 1949 until 1993, when Martin Marietta won the bid to take over. Martin (now Lockheed Martin) has a subsidiary company called Sandia Corporation that manages the laboratory (similar to the arrangement at ORNL and INEL).

Sandia is located on Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, and at Livermore California (across the street from L. Livermore National Lab). Total staff number about 8500 people, with about 1000 in California. About 60% of the staff are in technical and scientific positions.

Managers of “directorates” or “centers” have a fair degree of autonomy, and report up to a “sector” vice president level which in turn report to Al Narath, the president and lab director.

The sectors include:

Defense Programs (the largest), which does engineering and design for weapons systems,

Energy & Environment, led by Dan Hartley, deals with all other areas of the Dept. of Energy, with programs in Applied Energy, Nuclear Waste Management, Environment, Nuclear Energy, and Energy Research.

Work for Others (other government agencies) also known as Systems Applications and Research & Exploratory Technology

Sandia has specific major cross-cutting initiatives in agile manufacturing, electronics, and advanced information processing.

A general point of information: each lab annually publishes an “Institutional Plan”, which is organized according to which DOE Program Office supports the work, not the lab’s own organizational structure. Thus a “mapping” between the two structures is required to be able to see the work of the groups within a lab.

Sandia Technologies & Programs


Covered in this section:

  • Combustion Research
  • Advanced Batteries and SupercapacitorsUtility Batteries/Storage/UBG
  • Renewables
  • Fuel Cells
  • Robotics
  • High Consequence Operations
  • High Performance Computing
  • Distributed Information Technologies (NII)
  • Sensors
  • Materials
  • Reliability/Decision Making
  • Micro SMES
  • HyMelt
  • High power switching

General Telephone # is (501) 844-5678
In Livermore, CA (510) 294-3000

Programs of greatest direct applicability to utilities are in the:
Applied Energy Program Dan E. Arvizu, Director 505-845-8336


Three major program areas:

1. Renewable Energy: solar thermal, PV, wind, geothermal, biomass

2. Energy Efficiency: utility energy management, materials & manufacturing processes, combustion technologies, transportation batteries, superconductivity

3. Fossil Energy: coal combustion, oil & gas production, strategic petroleum reserve
Industry collaborations involve many electric utility companies and manufacturers.

• Combustion Research Don Hardesty, Manager, Combustion Research 510-294-2321

Charles M. Hartwig 510-294-3047

Over 1000 Sandia employees are located in facilities in Livermore California, and operate several special facilities, one of which is the Combustion Research Facility, the only one of its kind in DOE. Can handle industrial scale burners to 3 million BTU/hour. It is a “user facility” and outside visitors and users are encouraged. Partnerships with industry include GM, Cummins and Beckman Instruments and many others. Developed a number of specialized flame/combustion observational, measurement and diagnostic techniques. Provided fuel blending strategies to midwest utilities to meet SOx requirements.

The Burner Engineering Research Laboratory is a user facility for industrial burner manufacturers, is booked for a year in advance. Wide range of studies include air toxics modeling

NOx program addresses measurement and prediction of NO formation in turbulent flames.

Sensors for steel industry for in situ measurement of CO and CO2 in furnaces.

Combustion properties of biomass derived fuels and char.

Laser and remote atmospheric sensing (invented Lidar).

The Engine Combustion Technology Program involves all the major car and engine makers, universities and other labs.

In Hydrogen, work in progress on combustion, engines, storage, and hydrides.

Publications: CRF News published bimonthly. Contact William J. MacLean, 510-294-2687


• Advanced Batteries and Supercapacitors

Electrochemical R&D for DOE is longstanding and diverse, meeting many needs for high quality and reliable systems for weapons programs, and working at the forefront in many nonweapons areas of technology. Lawrence Berkeley Lab is well known for fundamental research, and Sandia for devices, having supplied all the power supplies for nuclear weapons systems since the 1950s.

Until a reorganization on July 1, Sandia’s work in battery technology was part of a larger activity called the “Electronic Components Center”, which includes microelectronics, modules, optoelectronics, components and reliability. Full fabrication capability. [This Center could be a valuable resource for a utility’s customers in these industries. Ray Bair, Director, 505-844-1912.]

Battery programs now reside in the “Energy Components Center” (Joan Woodard, Director 505-845-9917) along with work in explosives and neutron generators, though personnel will continue their close coordination with the Electronics Center.

There are four battery development groups at Sandia, each with a different emphasis, but closely interrelated. The department heads form a coordinating team.

Dan Doughty Battery Programs 505-845-8105

Ken Grothaus Battery Research 505-844-1654

Dennis Mitchell Battery Development 505-844-8656

Paul Butler Testing Program 505-844-7874

(Full range of performance, abuse, failure, and qualification testing. Extensive facilities.)


– Work in Zinc/Silver Oxide, Sodium Sulfur, Zinc Air, Zinc Bromine, Advanced Lead Acid, Nickel Hydrogen, Nickel Cadmium, Lithium/Sulfur Dioxide, Supercapacitors

– USABC CRADA, with automakers, lithium rechargeable battery development and testing

– Implantable long life battery development for medical application

– Battery Technology Initiative — funds-in CRADA with 4 companies for consumer batteries

– Ultracapacitor — thin film to get 1000 F in a D cell.

– Reserve Batteries — primary energy sources; one-shot devices activated by external means. For weapons systems; not likely to have commercial application.


• Utility Battery Storage Program Paul Butler, 505-844-7874 Abbas Akhil, 505-844-3353

Battery technology development (Pb-acid with GNB, Sodium sulfur with Silent Power, etc.), modular systems (AC Battery/Delco), systems studies (SDG&E, Chugach, Oglethorpe, BPA), feasibility studies (SMUD, Chugach), test & demos (PG&E, Metlakatla Alaska, PREPA) subsystems engineering, integration, industry outreach.

Strictly electric power industry oriented. About half of budget goes to industry in heavily cost shared projects. Sandia sees utility applications as being very nearly ready for take off. (Phase 2 of “Opportunities” project just getting underway–needs industry participation! Phase 1 report available from Paul Butler.) Broad view of potential emphasizes T&D benefits, DSM and UPS/Power Quality applications, which don’t require very large scale demos. Problems with large scale installations leading to new approach to do smaller units that are flexible or transportable. More of a T&D asset like a transformer. Puerto Rico’s experience with 20 MW unit has them convinced to meet their estimated need of 100 MW with turnkey units.


Provide support to the Utility Battery Group (UBG)

[An excellent and very cost effective way for utilities to stay abreast of developments; controlled by its utility members Many UFTO members already active. Contact Rick Winters, UBG chairman (PG&E/Endicon) 510-867-0904, or Paula Taylor, Energetics, 410-290-0370.]

• Renewables Paul Klimas, Manager, Renewable Energy Office, 505-844-8159

Sandia’s goal is to develop commercially viable energy technologies based on solar, wind and geothermal resources so they beocme significant domestic and international supplies. They have a long-term focus on the utility sector, expecting remote markets to play a key role in supporting the industry.

Photovoltaics Marjorie Tatro 505-844-3154

Activities in all aspects, from cell development to system applications. Work closely with industry on technology development for crystalline silicon cells and modules and other systems components (e.g. inverters, battery charge controllers and controls), and with the systems integration industry and users through the PV Design Assistance Center. The Center did a thorough evaluation of existing installations and identified new opportunities for the National Park Service. They have an extensive publications list (including some on utility interconnection issues), and provide support to project developers here and abroad.

In the past, Sandia had a number of partnerships under an initiative on concentrators, but chose not to support this work when funding levels were reduced in 1993. The only concentrator effort funded through FY94 was the low concentration line focus concept advanced by SEA Corp.

In one-sun cell development, Sandia emphasizes crystalline silicon, working on cell designs and processes. (NREL tends to be more involved in advanced materials and thin film.) Sandia believes their broad resources in manufacturing are valuable, bringing optimized high temperature processes, surface treatments and reduced waste streams to the manufacturers of cells.
Solar Thermal Craig Tyner 505-844-3340

Manage the conversion of Solar One (still operational!) to Solar Two. IR 100 awards for Solar Detox and Dish-Stirling. $150 million jointly funded program with utilities and manufacturers on Dish Stirling engines (Cummins 7 kW remote power unit is making good progress, and there are two other larger system efforts, both with utility involvement). (“Compendium of Solar Dish/Stirling Technology”, SAN93-7026 Printed Jan. 1994, by W.B. Stine and R.B. Diver, a new report surveys international state of the art.)

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility has an array of heliostat, dish and trough systems for running tests of various kinds.

The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center provides technical assistance, helping clients select and apply solar thermal technology. (Contact David Menicucci, 505-844-3077).
Wind Henry Dodd, 505-844-5253

Historically, Sandia’s emphasis was on the vertical axis concept, however they have a new initiative to approach wind with a systems view, and have worked on materials and blade design improvements for all wind machines.
Geothermal Jim Dunn, 505-844-4715

Working to reduce costs — developing down hole instrumentation to reduce loss circulation, and”slim-hole” technology that could cut cost of drilling by 1/2 (appropriate for remote village applications). Also working on geothermal ground source heat pump concept (drilling, placement and heat exchanger design). Helped commercialize new drill bit.
• Fuel Cells Gary Carlson, Manager, Fuel Science Dept. 505-844-8116

This is a small program, using most internal lab directed funds, except for work for the DOE Office of Transportation Technology on advanced concepts. Goal is to develop partnerships with industry, and capitalize on Sandia’s capabilities in batteries, catalysis, and especially manufacturability. Note need for better materials to get long term performance. Sandia/Livermore is doing some work in PEM thin films, applying membrane supported catalysis to enable on board hydrogen production.


They see special opportunity to develop a small fuel cell (less than 1 KW) for remote applications, to compete with PV and batteries. One application could be gas pipeline condition monitoring.

Sandia has a broad capability to tailor properties of carbon foams, as applied to supercapacitors, advanced (Li) batteries, and fuel cells.


• Robotics Sandia Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center, Phil Bennet, 505-845-8777

Sandia is at the forefront of bringing defense and weapons related “Intelligent Systems and Robotics” to bear on commercial needs, and has grown to be the leading robotics R&D effort in the U.S. They focus on critical national needs (hazardous waste clean up and manufacturing competitiveness), reducing the time and cost to develop applications of advanced technology into practical systems, and improving the speed, quality and safety of operations. There is a strong emphasis on working with industry, universities and other government facilities.

Their approach is based on an open-architecture communications-based integration of sensors, mechanisms and software. Computer-model and realtime sensor-based control strategies make off-line programming possible, speeding the development of applications and systems.

Historically, DOE’s internal need for systems to handle small production lots led to the development of ways to reduce the costs of programming and fixturing.

Specific projects relevant to utilities include robotic welding of spent fuel barrels, saving on the order of $250 million and thousands of man rems of exposure. Another involves hot repairs to boilers — in fossil plants (proprietary — with an unnamed utility)!

This Center is clearly a potentially valuable resource for automating utility operations, as well as for industrial customers who develop or use robotics. A good overview is contained in a booklet called “Sandia is Changing the Way the U.S. Does Robotics.” Sandia staff have also authored a number of papers at robotics conferences.


• High Consequence Operations Russ Skocypec, 505-845-8838

Sandia’s Engineering Sciences Center encompasses computation, testing, and validation, enabling design trade-offs to be confidently evaluated. Evolving from a historical mission to support systems design and safety for nuclear munitions, they now can offer industry a means to quantify efficiency and safety issues pertaining to industrial accident phenomenology. Detailed risk assessment and coupled analysis and testing provide understanding of the physics of fires, crashes and blasts, enabling better decisions about prevention and response.


• High Performance Computing Sudip Dosanjh, 505-845-7018

DOE operates the Massively Parallel Computing Research Laboratory (MPCRL) at Sandia, which applies these new levels of computing power to a broad array of scientific and engineering problems, ranging from structural mechanics and acoustics to chemical reaction dynamics, genome mapping and astrophysics. In the last 4 years alone, the computational speeds have increased by a factor of 100. In collaboration with the University of New Mexico, Sandia has developed a unique operating system called SUNMOS, and their own linear equation problem solver gives them powerful capabilities in parallel computing.

A newletter called the MPCRL Research Bulletin is available.

[Perhaps a place to try some new approaches in power system modeling? Particularly in connection with the next item.]


• Distributed Information Technologies,

Rich Palmer, Manager, California Program Development, 510-294-13126

Sandia has a major role in developing technologies for distributed information systems that will contribute to building the “National Information Infrastructure.” Industry has needs similar to DOE’s Defense Programs to use cost-effective distributed information systems to access and process information. The issues are the same: manipulating large data sets, moving them around efficiently, and dealing with privacy and security issues. DOE labs have developed synthetic data sets as benchmarks for participants to perform their own validations and comparisons. The goal is to be able to run problems on very large parallel or distributed systems via high-speed networks.

Sandia has also built extensive testbeds to develop and evaluate distributed applications over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks tying together distributed computing resources. The testbeds include long-link emulators that simulate delays and errors encountered in wide-area networks over large distances. To complement those testbeds, Sandia has also developed a Monte-Carlo simulation based modeling capability for studying realistic network component performance and issues such as congestion control mechanisms for large networks. By including the proper physical representations of traffic models for sources and sink, the same modeling capability could by used to simulate the performance, utilization, and potential overload of wide-area electrical transmission grids.


• Sensors Marion Scott, Manager, Sensor Programs Dept., 505-845-8146

Sandia’s work in microsensor development includes acoustic, micro machine/micro electronics, fiber optics, and micro impedance techniques. They have their own complete CMOS IC fabrication capability in-house, as well as for gallium arsenide, enabling them to undertake unique development challenges, such as combining micro machined structures and associated electronics on an IC.

– A bulk quartz resonator can look at the condition of oil in situ. Other possible applications–monitor the state of charge of a Pb acid battery or the capacity of coolants.

– Surface acoustic wave devices coated with chemically sensitive films can sense chemical species in gas at parts per million by looking at resonance changes. With multiple coatings and using pattern recognition techniques it’s possible to distinguish multiple species. Has been packaged in a down hole tool for pollutant sensing.

-Hydrogen sensor on a chip uses special alloys that change their resistivity with maximum sensitivity to H2 concentration.

– Fiber optics offer another technique to sense a wide range of chemicals, such as hydrogen, mercury, SO2, chlorine, and various oxidants. The end of the fiber is coated with a thin chemically sensitive film that changes its reflectivity. CRADA underway with the JW Harley & Assoc to develop a H2 sensor for utility transformers.

– Micro impedance and capacitive sensors can measure physical features for manufacturing applications, e.g. detecting surface flaws in real time. This has been applied to textiles.

– Accelerometers measure vibration indicating structural changes. Sandia has developed a fiber optic/micro machine hybrid device.

• Materials Jim Jellison, Manager, Technical Business Operations,
Materials & Process Sciences, 505-844-6397

Sandia’s Materials Science and Technology program has 600 staff, and is the largest in DOE. Originally developed to provide non-nuclear components for weapons, it now offers services to a wide range of government customers and private industry. The forte is concurent design of the product and the process to make it.

Expertise includes welding, especially cold welding, and soldering; mechanics; tribology, especially lubricant free, with a focus in electromechanical devices; corrosion, emphasis on electronics (e.g., fluxes on circuits, dissimilar metals, batteries); corrosion kinetics, atmospheric testing facility (sensitivities in ppb); aluminum coatings–developing replacement process with less environmental impact; laser surface ablation.

Smart Processes — predictive models using phenomenological data enhances casting, heat treatment, welding, induction heating, etc.

Aging of organic/polymer materials-accurately accelerated aging tests. Applied to electrical cable in work for the NRC

• Reliability/Decision Making

Robert Cranwell, Manufacturing Systems Reliability, (505)844-8368

Industry and the nuclear weapons complex (NWC) rely upon the availability and reliability of equipment which can greatly influence operational costs. Equipment design, reliability, maintenance strategies, and spares inventories all contribute to the cost-of-ownership of factory or plant equipment. Sandia has developed capabilities to assist industry and the NWC in “design for reliability”, equipment improvement analyses, creation of maintenance strategies, and optimization of spares inventories. These capabilities have been broadly applied throughout industry, including the U.S. semiconductor industry, biomedical industry, machine tool industry, automotive and aircraft manufacturing industries, and solar power industry. The capabilities include custom reliability analysis software, optimization analysis techniques, predictive maintenance capabilities, and cost-of-ownership analysis tools. Key partners include SEMATECH and several of its member companies, Cincinnati Milacron, McDonnell Douglas, and USCAR (a consortia of the “big three” auto makers).

Sandia has been working with several major companies, including Motorola and Texas Instruments, to evaluate and qualify new environmentally conscious “no clean” soldering technologies that do not require subsequent cleaning of newly soldered printed wiring assemblies. These new processes are being used extensively throughout industry with great success (Two reports, 11/92 and 6/95, describing these efforts have been issued.)

The Energy Analysis Diagnostic Center (EADC) is a DOE/Office of Industrial Technology program at 30 universities around the U.S., which perform energy audits of companies. In conjunction with this program, Sandia is working with two of the NIST Manufacturing Technology Centers (MTCs) to develop an integrated energy, environment and manufacturing (EEM) assessment tool, the concept being that these three areas (energy, environment, and manufacturing) need to be assessed on an integrated basis, as an attempt to optimize in one area could cause problems in the others. This integrated tool would be used by MTC field agents to assist U.S. manufacturers in EEM related issues, and is being piloted in SIC codes 345, 346 and 347 (screw machines, stampings and forging and metal coating). The Sandia/MTC program is jointly funded by EPRI, NIST, EPA, DOE/OIT, and Sandia.

Follow-on opportunities are needed.

Detailed briefings or information are available on request.

[Perhaps this group would be a good resource to go after the T&D maintenance issue?]

• Micro SMES, Dean Rovang, 505-845-8277

Both Sandia and Los Alamos have a hand in this program to build a SMES unit that would be about 10x larger than Superconductivity, Inc.’s unit, and smaller than the B&W/Anchorage device. The application is Power Quality for industrial customers, and/or at the substation level — on the order of 10’s of MW for seconds. This is seen as a development project, not a research one, with the goal to learn if such a device is the solution to an industry problem.

CRADA negotiations are underway with one utility already, however there is very likely a way for other utilities to participate, if only by providing modest funding for a seat at the table.

• HyMelt, Stuart Purvis, 505-845-8392

The technology makes it possible to convert low grade hydrocarbon feedstocks (or fossil fuels) directly into Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide (separate product streams!) while sequestering impurities, even producing elemental sulfur. There is no stack, and no emissions.

Ashland wants this technology for its refineries, to deal with the sour crude it often must buy, to produce hydrogen, and to handle refinery “bottoms”, which are a costly disposal headache. As a Hydrogen producer, HYMELT is estimated to be 30% cheaper than steam reforming when using the same feedstock, i.e. fuel gas. It is cheaper still when a waste stream is used as the feedstock instead.

Ashland Oil has demonstrated proof of concept in their labs, and has funding committed for a production installation. What’s missing is the piece in the middle — the intermediate scale demonstration R&D. Sandia is proposing to DOE/Fossil to fund the government side of a CRADA with Ashland, but with budget cuts, funds might not be available. Ashland has asked Sandia to look discretely for a partner interested in other fields of use, and who could put up $800k/year for 3 years, leveraging the many $ millions that Ashland has spent and committed.

[This information should be handled with discretion.]

Contact Al Sylwester Tel # 505-844-8151
• High power switching Don Cook, 505-845-7446

Sandia has developed very fast, very high power switching capabilities in connection with pulsed particle accelerators for fusion research and other work requiring fast pulses. For example, they can make a 20 megavolt, 10-20 megamp pulse with a 50 nsec. risetime.

It has been suggested that this technology might be applicable to utility needs, however an initiative would be needed to establish a dialogue between the developers and someone from the utility industry to explore the possibilities.

Sandia Contacts
General Telephone # is (505) 844-5678
In Livermore, CA (510) 294-3000

The primary contacts for UFTO are:
Alan P. Sylwester, Technology Integration Dept., 505-844-8151
Dan E. Arvizu, Director, Applied Energy Program 505-845-8336
Technology Transfer: 505-271-7888

Information Source Contacts / Technical Information Services:

Office of Public Relations and Communications : 505-845-7759

“Laboratory Publications” 505-844-4902
Technical Publications 505-844-9285
Technical Library 505-845-8364

Bulletin #6 – NREL Visit, UFTO Meeting, Sandia, Los Alamos

UFTO Bulletin #6

March 21, 1995

To: UFTO Subscribers

. . in this issue: . . . . . . . . .

NREL Visit, UFTO Meeting, Sandia, Los Alamos

1. On Thursday March 9, we had an all day nonstop series of follow-up presentations and discussions with NREL staff, on all aspects of their programs. Everyone found the day to be very valuable, including the NREL folks, who appreciated the chance to present their work and to learn a bit more about what the industry is up to. Our group was the first of its kind that NREL had ever encountered, and the sessions gave them some important new perspectives.

2. On Friday 3/10, we had our own group meeting, to discuss the UFTO program and ways it could be made more effective. Every UFTO member utility was represented except for Wisconsin Electric (Graham Siegel made his own visit to NREL a few weeks ago.) A draft “Proceedings” is attached, subject to any comments that attendees might want to offer. (Please send me comments ASAP, along with copies of your notes or “trip report” if any!).

3. The next week, I went to Sandia and Los Alamos for more “drinks from a fire hose”. Once again, there appears to be some very exciting opportunities for utilities in what these labs are doing, and a strong interest on their part in getting closer to utilities.

A few highlights are outlined in an attachment. There are some very significant ground floor opportunities, some of which are quite new, unannounced, and time-sensitive.

4. One key issue keeps coming up. The labs want to know if we’re serious, and if there’s a real possibility that we (you) are prepared to do business with them in some concrete way, if the right kind of technology opportunity comes along. They’re understandably wary of all the time it takes for them to host visitors, unless there’s a reason to think something will come of it.

I’ve indicated that we (you) are interested, motivated, and serious, and that if the technology is right, “anything is possible,” ranging from substantial funding under a Crada or work for others agreement, to hosting demos, to investments in new ventures.

As you review the various “deals” I report to you, be thinking not only if the technology is interesting, but also what kinds of resources you’d be prepared to bring to the table, and what kind of business arrangement you’d want. Let’s show the labs we mean business.

PS: If any of you are looking for a better way than Dialog to search for technology information, particularly from government sources, give me a call. I’ve got a recommendation for you.

NOTE: The current domestic UFTO membership comprises approximately 1/6 of the total U.S. electric utility industry! And the international participation amounts to about 1/7 of the U.S. industry.

(Thanks to Janie Farrington at PSI/Cinergy for the figures.)



Ashland Oil has demonstrated proof of concept in their labs, and has funding committed for a production installation. What’s missing is the piece in the middle — the intermediate scale demonstration R&D. Sandia Labs has made a proposal to DOE/Fossil to fund the government side of a CRADA with Ashland, but with budget cuts, it’s possible the funds might not be available.

The technology makes it possible to convert low grade hydrocarbon feedstocks (or fossil fuels) directly into Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide (separate streams!) while sequestering impurities, even producing elemental sulfur. There is no stack, and no emissions.

Ashland wants this technology for its refineries, to deal with the sour crude it often has to deal with, to produce hydrogen, and to handle refinery “bottoms”, which are a costly disposal headache.

As a Hydrogen producer, HYMELT is estimated to be 30% cheaper than steam reforming, when using the same feedstock, i.e. fuel gas. It is much cheaper still, when the cost of the feedstock is removed, and a waste stream is used instead.

In case DOE doesn’t come up with the money, Ashland has asked Sandia to begin looking discretely for a partner interested in other fields of use, and who could put up $800k/year for 3 years, leveraging the many $ millions that Ashland has spent and committed.

We are the first to hear this story. Please handle with discretion, and do not discuss outside your company.

Contact is Al Sylwester, Sandia Tel # 505-844-8151

or call me

Ed Beardsworth 415-328-5670


Diamond Like Coatings (DLC) on Large Objects

with Plasma Source Ion Implantation.


Based on an invention at the Univ of Wisc from the early 80’s, Los Alamos has developed the capability to cost-effectively put DLC on large objects of arbitrary shape without preheating, and with a high degree of intrinsic adherence. It is the subject of a $14 million crada with GM for automotive applications.

DLC has been viewed almost entirely as a means to prevent wear . However, Los Alamos recently published a paper showing a many-fold improvement in corrosion resistance (done for a neutrino detection experiment!).

This could fulfill a personal vision of mine of many years that diamond coatings would be a major breakthru for turbine blades, or any component subject to wear or corrosion. The only utility interest to date has been by EPRI, to prevent fouling of nuclear power plant venturis, but funding isn’t available!

Los Alamos hadn’t been thinking in terms of other utility industry applications until we spoke. A joint development effort with utilities, Lawrence Berkeley Lab and possibly a vendor would be a brand new initiative. Los Alamos is already active in setting up “vertical consortia” to apply this technology in other industries, and would be very interested in working with us.

Please call me if you’re interested in pursuing this.

Ed Beardsworth 415-328-5670



Both Sandia and Los Alamos seem to have a hand in this program to build a SMES unit that would be about 10x larger than Superconductivity, Inc.’s unit, and smaller than the B&W/Anchorage device. The application is Power Quality for industrial customers, and/or at the substation level — on the order of 10’s of MW for seconds. This is seen as a development project, not a research one, with the goal to learn if such a device is the solution to an industry problem.

CRADA negotiations are underway with one utility already, however there may be (and I feel there ought to be) a way for other utilities to participate, if only by providing modest funding for a seat at the table.

Please call me if you’re interested in pursuing this.

Ed Beardsworth 415-328-5670


PEM Fuel Cell


Los Alamos has the oldest ongoing program in PEM, and some key breakthroughs in lowering the cost (by reducing the Pt catalyst requirement, and new designs and fabrication methods), and overcoming sensitivity to impurities. They also are working with an unidentified major company who’s supplying a new membrane, different from Dupont or Dow’s, and less expensive.

They believe PEM can “leapfrog” the high temperature fuel cell technologies (MC, SO) in stationary applications, which will be much easier than mobile ones (the conventional view of where PEMs belong). At least 10-15 companies large and small are working on PEM in one form or another (not just Ballard!). Los Alamos has lab units at 100 sq. cm. reliably demonstrating their technology.

There is no utility “user group” for PEM, and one is needed. We can be instrumental in forming one with Los Alamos, the other labs, and their other industrial partners. There’s also the obvious opportunity to stake out a piece of this very interesting nontraditional approach to fuel cell technology.

This group was initially wary of spending time on visitors unless it could lead to something. After I described the strategic interest utilities have in fuel cells and the new kinds of business initiatives utilities are taking, the PI offered to prepare a brief discussion paper, outlining their ideas and how utilities could participate.

Please call me if you’re interested in pursuing this, and want a copy of the paper when I receive it. Ed Beardsworth 415-328-5670


Catalytic Reduction of NOx

by microwave assisted chemistry


Los Alamos has demonstrated at lab scale a means to remove NOx from a simulated gas stream, and need to implement it at a utility or factory/process that generates NOx.

Carbonaceous material first adsorbs the NOx, and then the bed is purged by heating it with microwaves with O2 (an adsorb/desorb cycle).

One interesting implication– with this capability to remove NOx, it may be possible to operate boilers at higher temperature, for better overall optimal performance.

This was internally funded at the lab, and DOE/Fossil is interested.

Contact is Ed Joyce, 505-665-2964