Nortel Digital Power Line Joint Venture

The story is picking up speed. (See UFTO Note March 6 for the last installment.) Nortel and United Utilities have formed a joint venture to pursue the Digital PowerLine Technology worldwide. Part of the Nortel group in Atlanta will form the nucleus for the joint venture’s North American effort.

As last week’s press release explains, 10 major utilities around the world are already committed to deploy DPL. The situation in North America is less far along, due to the technical issues that need to be resolved, however the forming of the joint venture will certainly accelerate the momentum.

Considerably more technical information is now available on the new website at:

As explained in the March 6 UFTO Note, two unnamed US utilities are already providing system data, as Nortel continues to work on the details on their business case for N. America. Many utilities have contacted Nortel and indicated a readiness to get involved immediately. The company is keeping a list, but will go slow until it feels it has enough information to proceed.

If your utility hasn’t contacted them yet, it might be wise to get on the list, if not pursue it a bit more aggressively.

The contact is: Barbara Warren, Senior Manager, Digital PowerLine Marketing

Here’s the text of the latest press release:

Nortel: Joint Venture Formed to Market Digital PowerLine Technology Worldwide; Initial Agreements Reached — Serving More Than 35 Million Homes

March 26, 1998

LONDON, March 25 /PRNewswire/ via NewsEdge Corporation — Nortel (Northern Telecom) and United Utilities PLC today announced the formation of a joint venture company, NOR.WEB DPL, to develop and market Digital PowerLine solutions on a worldwide basis.

Digital PowerLine, which was developed jointly by Nortel and Norweb Communications, part of United Utilities PLC, enables data communications, including Internet traffic, to be transmitted over electrical power distribution networks at speeds of more than one Megabit per second-up to 10 times faster than ISDN, currently the fastest speed generally available.

Nortel and United Utilities will each take a 50 percent stake in the joint venture, which will develop and market Digital PowerLine equipment, software and services. John Beckitt of United Utilities will serve as chairman and Steve Pusey of Nortel has been named chief executive officer.

In conjunction with the formation of the joint venture, NOR.WEB is also announcing that to date, 10 international utilities have signed agreements declaring their commitment in proceeding with initial market deployment of the Digital PowerLine technology.

The potential market for Digital PowerLine through these agreements is more than 35 million homes in seven European and Asian countries.

“We believe that the roll-out of Digital PowerLine will enable the mass deployment of high-speed data access and applications on an unprecedented scale in these markets,” said Steve Pusey, chief executive officer of NOR.WEB. “This first wave of customer agreements demonstrates the scale of global interest in Digital PowerLine.”

“NOR.WEB takes the collaboration between Nortel and Norweb Communications on Digital PowerLine to a new level of commercial activity,” said John Beckitt, chairman of NOR.WEB. “NOR.WEB power utility customers will find that Digital PowerLine provides a low-risk, high-return investment that can be implemented step by step in line with demand.”

A new version of the Digital PowerLine technology (DPL 1000) was launched on March 18, 1998 at the CeBIT ’98 exhibition in Hannover, Germany. Applications over DPL 1000 are planned to support bundled information and energy services. Examples include high-speed Internet access, multimedia, smart applications/remote control, home automation and security, on-line banking/shopping, data back-up, telecommuting, entertainment, and planned IP telephony.

The new Digital PowerLine solution consists of a network interface at the substation, a data unit on the side of the subscriber’s house, and a stand-alone PowerLine communications module. In addition, a complete software and management capability adds functionality and flexibility to the system. The total package provides a competitively positioned access network which integrates seamlessly into today’s WAN networks.

Today, NOR.WEB is announcing agreements with the following seven companies: Norweb Communications of the UK, Vattenfall and Sydkraft of Sweden, RWE and EnBW of Germany, Singapore Power, and EDON of the Netherlands.

NOR.WEB will utilize Nortel, and its associated joint ventures, as one of its primary, worldwide channels-to-market-leveraging Nortel’s extensive capabilities to integrate total network solutions.

Norweb Communications provides an extensive range of advanced voice and data services and has achieved significant success in providing resilient networks for businesses throughout the north west of the UK. The company plans to use power line technology to provide public access networks for residential customers in the region. United Utilities has a combined capability in water and waste water, electricity, gas and telecoms, employing 10,000 people worldwide with revenues of pnds. stlg. 2.4 billion in 1997. This new technology will strengthen its competitiveness as a multi-utility service provider.

Nortel works with customers in more than 150 countries to design, build and integrate their communications products and advanced digital networks. Customers include public and private institutions; Internet service providers; local, long-distance, cellular mobile and PCS communications companies; cable television companies; and utilities.
Nortel had 1997 revenues of $US15.5 billion and has approximately 73,000 employees worldwide.

SOURCE Northern Telecom Limited
/CONTACT: Frank McNally, 703-712-8374 or, or Michelle Murray, 770-708-4434 or, both of Nortel/ /Company News On-Call: or fax, 800-758-5804, ext. 122158/ /Web site: (NTL. NT)

Environ Capital Forum NYC

Press Release
March 31, 1998
Contact: Loch McCabe, Keith Raab
For immediate release
Environmental Capital Network
(313) 996-8387; (313) 996-8732 fax;


On June 3, 1998, the EAST COAST ENVIRONMENTAL CAPITAL FORUM will be held in New York City. The East Coast Environmental Capital Forum will capitalize on growing investor interest in industrial process, energy and other environmental technologies. The East Coast Environmental Capital Forum will introduce investors to selected companies commercializing technologies, products or services that enhance both productivity and environmental quality.

“Our Forums are a terrific opportunity for investors to meet selected companies and to network with other investors focused on the environmental and energy industries,” says Loch McCabe, Director of the Environmental Capital Network (ECN). Nearly sixty (60) individual, professional, institutional, and corporate investors or their representatives attended the Environmental Capital Network’s West Coast Environmental Capital Forum, held in San Francisco on January 30, 1998.

The companies that will present at the East Coast Environmental Capital Forum will be determined by a Business Selection Committee composed of investors familiar with the environmental and energy industries. The Committee includes: Ethan Stambler (Advent International Corporation), Nancy Floyd (Nth Power Technologies), Jud Hill (HSBC Securities), Stephen Lynch (R.S. Lynch & Company), William Osborne (Venture Investment Management Company), Ann Partlow (Rockefeller & Company), Robert Shaw (Arete Corporation), and John Quirk (Quirk Carson Peppet).

“Investors and companies want to use their time well, ” reports Ira Rubenstein, Executive Director of the Environmental Business Association of New York State, Inc. “Investors want top quality deals. Companies want exposure to investors who understand their business. This environmental capital forum creates value for both investors and companies.”

Interested individual, professional, institutional and corporate investors should contact the Environmental Capital Network at 313-997-8387 or for registration information. Space is limited and advanced registration is strongly suggested.

The Environmental Capital Network (Ann Arbor, MI) and the Environmental Business Association of New York State, Inc. (Troy, NY) are organizing the Forum. The Environmental Capital Network (ECN) is a service that introduces investors to emerging and expanding environmental technology companies raising capital. ECN is a program of the Center for Environmental Policy, Economics and Science, a not-for-profit corporation. The Environmental Business Association of New York State, Inc. is a trade association that provides networking and educational resources to the environmental industry.

MC Power Seeking Strategic Partners

MC Power is quietly looking for strategic business partners to participate directly with them in the commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cells. MC Power plans to concentrate on building the fuel cell stack based on their proprietary technology, and have others do balance of plant fabrication and system assembly, and marketing, sales, distribution, and service. They’re also looking for preferred equipment and materials supplier arrangements.

The company has a detailed business plan which involves several stages leading up to operation of a number of commercial prototype generators in 2000 and 2001, and manufacturing capability for delivery on commercial orders in 2002. They believe that their extensive intellectual property (patents and know-how) puts them in a good position to provide electricity at a levelized cost of 5.5-7 cents/kwh, below the forecast average price paid by commercial users; with superior environmental performance; and with advantages for the restructured marketplace (small scale and cogeneration).

There are many attractive market segments: utilization of waste gases from industrial processes, landfill and water treatment plants; commercial and light industrial users, distributed generation on networks; and international markets.

MC Power is currently owned 51% by IGT, and 24.5% each by Bechtel and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries. Notably, the company will offer ownership positions, and the opportunity to invest at pre-IPO valuations.

A number of utilities, including one or two UFTO members, are already members of the Alliance to Commercialize Carbonate Technology, who will be notified of these developments. The company has a confidential “Partnering Opportunity” memorandum which presents a broad summary of the plan described here.

Contact: Lee Camara, President
630-986-8040 x151, fax 630-986-8072,

Sandia: Critical Infrastructure

Energy and Critical Infrastructures
(Notes from UFTO visit to Sandia 12/97.)

Sam Varnado, Director
Energy and Critical Infrastructure Technology Center

Sandia is at the forefront of the big wave of attention currently being paid to “critical infrastructure surety” as it impacts national security. (Surety means “assurance”, and encompasses safety, integrity, authenticity, security, reliability, and technology.) Coming at the issue from a long background in systems analysis in the nuclear energy and weapons programs, they’ve emerged as a major player. Their experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is seen as directly translatable to infrastructure systems analysis. Since it is impractical to define threats, the approach is “consequence based”, as a means to determine why and where protections are required. It begins by identifying consequences that must be avoided, and then finds the system failure modes that could lead to them.

Sandia supported the President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP), which has an extensive website ( featuring the complete text of their major report issued in October 1997. An Interim Group is continuing the Commission’s work. Also, the National Security Council is heading another interagency group that is drafting a Presidential Decision Directive to assign responsibility for the different infrastructures to the different agencies (due to be released soon).

The PCCIP report identifies the electric power grid as one of the most critical infrastructure sectors, notably in terms of the high degree of interdependence and interconnectedness of power with all the other sectors: telecommunications, finance and banking, oil and gas distribution, transportation, and vital human services (e.g. banking depends on information systems which depend on power). The power grid is very susceptible to physical and cyber threats, the latter especially in light of the increasing role of computers in the hardware, markets and financial dealings of the industry.

There is also a high degree of concern over the uncertain implications of utility industry restructuring. The transition from regulated rate based monopolies to competitive energy markets will most certainly impact reliability of service and vulnerability to disruption. Existing reliability models are not capable of accurately reflecting the issues that will arise.

Safety and Reliability of Nuclear Systems

Nestor Ortiz, Director, Nuclear Energy Technology Center,

For the DOE Nuclear Energy Program, there is research in Plant Lifetime Improvement, Aging of Reactor Components, and Instrumentation and Control Upgrade.

Sandia developed and maintains several noteworthy PRA codes. To mention some of them:
– MELCOR is used internationally and by the NRC. Modeling fully integrated engineering systems, it simulates the propagation accident to consequences. (U.S. utilities use MAP).
– CONTAIN is a research and design certification tool for containment systems
– RADTRAD design basis dose calculations for NUREG 1475. Revised baselines may eliminate the need for some equipment and maintenance procedures.

¥ Loss of Off Site Power (LOSP)
Of particular note, Loss of Off Site Power (LOSP) studies have led to major concerns over the potential impact of restructuring. In the PRA safety analysis of a nuclear power plant, the probability of loss of offsite power (i.e. power on the grid) is a very important factor. Plant safety systems are stressed by LOSP events, contributing over time to increased probabilities of malfunctions (e.g. resulting in higher probabilities of a loss of coolant accident).

While grid reliability has generally been excellent (

At the same time, Sandia has extensive experience and has developed a Generic Network Reliability Analysis Toolset, which is extremely effective for analysis telecomm networks. However, preliminary efforts to investigate the applicability of this model indicate that it is not immediately extensible to networks with direction and capacity constraints inherent in bulk power grids.

Contact Dennis Berry, 505-844-0234,

Electricity Interdependencies – Estimating Economic Risks

Sandia has surveyed existing economic risk models to see if they can be usefully applied to estimate impacts of electric power disruptions.
– Lifeline LLEQE — effects of earthquake, for insurance
– FEMA – consequence assessment tool
– Electric Sector — 44 different models
– NDAC – telecom

They chose ENERGY 2020, the most recent incarnation of the Dartmouth (“Club of Rome” and FOSSIL 89) systems dynamic modeling approach, which has been used by EPA to analyze effects of green house gases on the electric system. It is “agent-based” and adaptable, and is available for free.

It feeds into REMI, a commercial (expensive!) dynamic regional macro-economic model. In preliminary runs with the Texas grid study results, it showed clearly that regions could experience permanent loss of jobs and increased costs. Future work will include use of Sandia’s own ASPEN model, an agent-based simulation of the US economy.

Contact Diane Marozas, 505-844-5504,

Impacts of Storage on National Grid Reliability

Storage on the power grid can be seen in several different lights: 1. as a source of peak supply; 2. as a load and demand-side management option, and 3. as a means to render renewable generation more reliable from a systems operation perspective. Sandia has just completed an initial scoping study relating the 3rd option, to develop recommendations for how modeling methodologies need to be enhanced in order to address the question. In particular, the NEMS model could be used for such analyses with some modifications. (NEMS is DOE/EIA’s general equilibrium model of the national energy system. It’s Electricity Market Module doesn’t currently have the capability to model storage on the national grid.)

“Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in the National Energy Modeling System”,
SAND97-2926, Dec 1997

Contact Paul Butler, 505-844-7874,

Vital Issues Panel

Sandia uses its own “Vital Issues Panel” methodology to identify strategic issues in areas of national importance, particularly where there is a potential for Sandia to make contributions from its technological capabilities. Topics have included Global Climate, Environmental Security (i.e. the environment as a national security issue (e.g. effluents used aggressively, destabilization potential in Eastern Europe, terrorist targets, etc.) Infrastructure has been examined in two case studies, Critical Issues and Vulnerabilities in the Electric Sector, and separately, Vulnerabilities of the North American Power Grid.

Critical Issues and Vulnerabilities in the Electric Sector

To study vulnerabilities associated with the Electric Sector, Sandia convened a panel of experts representing the electric utility sector(April 1997). The group and identified critical issues and discussed how technology can help address those issues. They determined the top eight most critical issues arising from industry restructuring. In priority order, they are:

– Management and ownership of data streams
– The importance of consumer choice
– Competitive market pricing systems that will determine the mix of options
– Environmental issues
– State/federal role in collaborative and strategic research
– Integration of the national electric grid
– Incentives for keeping distribution systems up to date
– Accelerated retirement of a significant amount of generating capacity.

The panel also discussed the past, present and future of utility R&D, and ranked federal and private R&D spending priorities:
– Federal: Integration of the national grid and environmental issues
— Private: Importance of consumer choice, management and ownership of data streams, and environmental issues.

A concern remains whether the utility participants were sufficiently representative of the industry, and whether they – or the industry – appropriately estimate the importance of broader security issues, as compared with individual business concerns (e.g. with data ownership and dividing of system responsibilities). The Sandia team is anxious to have greater involvement from the industry in these efforts.

The discussions are summarized in the report: SAND97-1659, August 1997
Contact Arnie Baker, 505-284-4462,

North American Power Grid (NAPG)

In April and June 1997, panels attended by stakeholders from government, industry and academe discussed vulnerabilities associated with the NAPG. The first panel was tasked to develop a mission statement and to define criteria by which risks and threats could be identified and prioritized. The second panel identified and defined categories of risk to the NAPG and assessed their relative importance, based on the groundwork laid by the first group.

The overall results:

–Criteria: Likelihood, Consequence, Timeframe, Cost/Benefit

–Risks: In rank order of importance
– Unrecognized risks embedded in new technologies and operating structures
– “Tragedy of the Commons” *
– Physical Threats and non-natural disaster
– Shorter time horizons driven by cost reduction
– Reliability and liability implications of reregulation
– Cyber threats

*”Tragedy of the Commons” (a term originated by Garrett Hardin his classic 1968 article in Science Magazine), is the idea that no single actor has enough concern for the whole system, but each has the ability and self-interest to overtax available resources. In the context of the power grid, obligation to serve and cooperation are being replaced by competition and opportunism.

A partial outline of the results are available at:
It hasn’t been decided yet whether the report will be released outside Sandia, in view of proprietary information it contains.

Center for System Reliability

Contact Robert Cranwell, 505-844-8368,

Sandia technologies and expertise:
Modeling, simulation, optimization, maintenance strategies, network reliability/vulnerability, risk management, sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, human factors/human reliability, life-cycle cost analysis, software reliability, prob. risk assessment.

Applied to:
Power Generation, telecommunications, transportation, health care, equipment

Sandia has done analyses for many large corporations, e.g., design for reliability; predict and optimize impact of upgrades; optimization of spares inventory, etc.

Reliability Analysis Software Packages
Reliability enters into every phase of a product life cycle, from concept to design to production and operation to phase-out. Sandia has developed computer models to support the entire reliability engineering cycle.

WinR –Over 100 copies sold, available on a commercial basis from Sandia (they’re looking for a vendor). PC based reliability modeling and analysis provides a “dashboard” showing status of system components and performance.

Arramis – PRA for larger systems

WinR-PdM — Predictive Maintenance — combine real time sensor data with WinR for a dynamic view of component aging and overall system reliability. Demo at Allied Signal on a flexible manufacturing system

CRAX — The CassandRA eXoskeleton (CRAX) is a new reliability analysis tool that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories to support the Materials Aging and Reliability Program (another key capability at Sandia is the detailed understanding of the physics of aging phenomena–fatigue, fracture, corrosions, etc., which have myriad and complex implications for systems reliability).

There are three major elements to CRAX:

Analysis Engine (Cassandra)
User Interface (Tcl/Tk GUI)
Physical Model (User Supplied)

The Cassandra uncertainty analysis engine consists of a number of software routines which permit the user to select a variety of methods for including uncertainty in their analyses. Cassandra is CORBA compliant and platform independent permitting easy interface with many of the new engineering design and analysis software packages. Existing uncertainty analysis techniques include a variety of Monte Carlo and analytically based approaches. The specific methods are constantly being updated and improved.

In addition to the CORBA interface structure, access to the Cassandra uncertainty analysis engine is also available via a Tcl/Tkgraphical user interface. There is also an effort to permit this interface to be accessed through a WWW browser. This will greatly aid in access to the analysis software within the using community.

The final element of CRAX is the physical model. A major decision early in the development of CRAX was the decision to not include any physical modeling tools. Rather than develop a new modeling tool (e.g. finite element model or fault tree tool) it was decided to let the engineer rely on the existing tools that they were comfortable with and had confidence in. While not the ideal situation in terms of analysis speed, it was felt that for the engineers to become comfortable with incorporating uncertainty into their deterministic models, we did not want to stretch their belief system too far. Hence the reliance on existing, deterministic analysis tools and the reference to CRAX as an exoskeleton. Within CRAX is the capability to either recompile the existing software into the tool, thereby significantly increasing computational efficiency, or rely on ‘hand-shaking’ between the CRAX program and the existing software. TheTcl/Tk GUI handles either of these situations very easily.

David G. Robinson; 505-844-5883,

Strategic Surety & Risk Management

Contact Laura Gilliom, 505-844-9104,

(Surety means “assurance”, and encompasses safety, integrity, authenticity, security, reliability, and technology.)

(The following discussion is extremely sketchy–intended only to bring identify some of these subject areas and to highlight Sandia’s involvement and expertise.)

This program addresses itself to the state-of-the-art of “surety”, bringing together many of Sandia’s core capabilities. It’s overarching goal is to bring risk and reliability analysis from its current statistical foundations to become a predictive capability. “Consequences” are the starting point, as mentioned earlier, and “interdependencies” are a major theme. The work proceeds by combining what is done at the level of engineering design codes with analyses of scenarios for risk.

Risk Management is broadly defined as a management tool that encompasses these different but closely related activities:
1. Identification of hazards associated with a technical system
2. Determination of the risks (consequences and likelihoods) of those hazards.
3. Reduction of risks to acceptable levels through appropriate design and control measures.
4. Thorough documentation of the above 3 activities.
5. Continuing reevaluation to improve the system or solution.

At Sandia, several hundred professional staff apply these activities in 8 major areas :
– Environment and environmental restoration
– Information systems
– Nuclear Reactors
– Physical Security
– Production and Manufacturing
– Transportation
– Waste Management
– Weapons

To realize benefits of overlapping interests, these staff participate in an internal organization of risk professionals at Sandia, called Sandia’s International Institute for Systematic Risk Studies (SIIRS, or “scissors”).

–High Integrity Software
Abstract Synthesis Transformation — make short pieces of code that are “provably correct.”
Software Event Execution Reliability (SEER) involves a math overlay to be sure that sequences occur correctly.

–Information Assurance- Cryptography
Most methods of cryptography involve the use of a key and function. Sandia has developed a new approach to split the function, so no one person can have everything.

Sandia is the only DOE lab allowed to do R&D on cryptography, primarily for use and control of nuclear weapons. They have a major crypto library which is widely licensed.

–Devices–safe and secure. Doing new research to have confidence in the behavior of a system when a “chip makes a decision”.

–Authentication Center of Excellence (ACE) for banking, devices and software…physical tokens of authenticity; smart cards and highly secure smart card readers–systems for the Defense Department. (Think about SCADA systems and how susceptible they are to outside interference and control!)

–Information Warfare assessments–information and physical security. Imagine the havoc of an all out cyber war, i.e. an attack from an enemy country or syndicate, not just hackers.

–Auctions – imagine a new player who wants to disrupt it–gray areas between gaming the system and dishonesty….not just an issue of terrorists, but of businesses vulnerable to other players. How can bids/contracts be authenticated and when and how can they be disowned or repudiated?

Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan

On Wed, DOE announced the Clinton Administration’s plan for the Electric Power Industry. The Summary, complete text, and Q&A, appear on the DOE’s home page (attached) at:

Here is the press release

March 25, 1998

NEWS MEDIA CONTACT: Tom Welch, 202/586-5806

Administration’s Plan Will Bring Competition
To Electricity, Savings to Consumers

$20 Billion a Year in Savings for Consumers

The Clinton Administration today announced a proposal to bring competition and consumer choice to the electricity industry, saving consumers roughly $20 billion a year and improving the environment by reducing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

The Administration’s Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan will provide customer choice by 2003, but will allow states to opt out of competition if they believe that their consumers would be better off under the status quo. Replacing a regulated monopoly system with competition will also encourage efficiency, bring new products and services, strengthen reliability of service and protect consumers.

“This proposal will provide incentives for increased efficiency in the electricity market, saving American consumers $20 billion a year and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Both the economy and the environment will benefit,” said President William J. Clinton.

“We will bring America’s electric industry into the modern era and save consumers money. A family of four will save $232 a year — about two weeks of groceries. For the average family, this is the equivalent of getting a 5 percent income tax cut,” said Secretary of Energy Federico Pe–a. “Competitive forces will also create a more efficient, leaner and cleaner industry. And the environment will benefit as reduced emissions accompany this increased efficiency.”

“This comprehensive plan is the Clinton Administration’s blueprint to Congress so that together we can design legislation that protects the environment, public health and the economy,” said EPA Administrator Carol Browner. “In addition to bringing competition to the electricity industry, this plan will reduce greenhouse gas emissions in cost-effective ways and march in lockstep with our previous commitments to clean air.”

“Sixteen states have already moved to provide for electricity industry competition. There are, however, issues that only the federal government can deal with,” said Secretary Pe–a. “Federal legislation is needed to enable states to implement retail competition effectively. And only federal legislation can modify or repeal outdated federal laws, cover regional electricity markets, address concerns about market power, ensure that the interstate electricity grid is reliable, and establish uniform standards so that all Americans are receiving the same information about their utility suppliers. We want to work with Congress to get comprehensive legislation that benefits all consumers.”

The Administration’s Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan:

– Provides for customer choice by January 1, 2003, but allows states to opt out of the competitive market structure if they believe that their consumers would be better off under the status quo system or their own unique restructuring proposal. This will give states the freedom to structure retail competition that works best for their citizens.

– Supports stranded cost recovery for utilities that might not otherwise be able to recover the costs of certain past investments that are no longer economic in the low-cost competitive market. The plan encourages states to provide for recovery of stranded costs, supporting their fundamental authority in these matters.

– Strengthens electric service reliability by requiring that all participants in physical electric transactions on the grid comply with mandatory standards. The plan improves reliability by building on the industry’s tradition of self-regulation and giving the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) authority to approve and oversee a private, self regulating organization that develops and enforces mandatory reliability standards.

– Gives FERC authority to require transmitting utilities to turn over operational control of transmission facilities to an independent system operator. The plan also includes a proposal to amend federal law to encourage the development of regional transmission planning and siting groups.

– Requires all utility companies to disclose, in a consistent format, information about the services they offer so customers can comparison shop and know what they are buying. Just as the Food and Drug Administration requires manufacturers to disclose nutrition information on a cereal box, utilities will use a standard consumer label that will include information on prices, terms, conditions, and the environmental impacts of the electric power being sold.

– Establishes a Renewable Portfolio Standard to ensure that at least 5.5 percent of all electricity sales include generation from renewable energy sources by 2010. This would double the projected amount of energy from non hydroelectric renewable sources such as wind, solar and biomass. If companies cannot generate power from their own renewable sources, they can purchase credits from those who exceed their targets. The proposal includes a backup cost cap to limit program costs.

– Cuts pollution and greenhouse gases. When costs start to matter, there will be increased economic incentives to cut the two-thirds of energy currently wasted in fossil fuel electricity generation. Greater power plant efficiency saves fuel, cuts oil imports and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.

– Establishes a Public Benefits Fund to provide matching funds of up to $3 billion to states for low-income assistance, energy-efficiency programs, research and development, and renewable technologies. These costs are currently passed on to consumers by regulated utilities in their rates. For example, many utilities include in their rates the cost of programs that make sure the poor and elderly do not have their heat shut off during the winter months. This funding approach will no longer work under competition because utilities will have to compete with new suppliers who do not have to pay for these costs. Many states that are moving to competition intend to continue funding these programs through a separate distribution fee on all electricity customers. The Public Benefit Fund would encourage and support states to ensure that the current level of funding for these programs, estimated at about $6 billion in 1996, is preserved.

– Gives EPA authority to provide interstate nitrogen oxide trading authority to assure that we achieve NOx reductions as cost-effectively as possible and enhance air quality.

– Modernizes federal electricity law to get the right balance of competition without market abuse, including giving FERC the authority to mitigate market power in the event that some companies begin to acquire excessive control over retail electricity markets and repealing outdated laws like the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 and the “must buy” provision of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act.

“The electricity industry is still operating under a regulated, monopoly system — rules, regulations and laws that were first enacted decades ago. Consumers can’t choose their own suppliers and there is little incentive for companies to be cost- and energy-efficient. Why? Because a regulated monopoly supplier doesn’t have to compete and essentially has a guarantee that its costs will be recovered.

“If you’re the only game in town, you set the rules of the game,” Pe–a said. “With competition, we’re going to change this. With competition, the customer will come first.”

– DOE –


[Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan]

Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan on-line
Download a copy of the Comprehensive Electricity
Competition Plan (*PDF format)

Summary on-line
Download a copy of the Summary (*PDF format)

Questions and Answers about the Plan 0n-line
Download a copy of the Questions and Answers about
the Plan (*PDF format)

News Release on the Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan

Fact Sheets

Benefits of Plan
Need for Federal Action
Retail Competition Policy – Flexible Mandate
Stranded Cost Principle
Consumer Information
Strengthen Electric System Reliability
Renewable Portfolio Standard
Public Benefits Fund
Air Quality
Download a copy of all Fact Sheets (*PDF format)
Download a copy of Fact Sheets about Impact of Plan on
Consumers by Identified Regions (*PDF format)


Elec. Cable Research-Sandia

Electric Cable Life Assessment and Condition Monitoring

John Clauss, 505-844-5449,
Curt Nelson, 505-845-9253,

Sandia has an extensive program to study electric cables, primarily in the context of nuclear power plant safety. Cables are everywhere in power plants, transmitting power and information, and can be the origin of common mode failures, e.g. when many cables fail simultaneously during an accident. Generally, cables perform well in U.S. nuclear plants, but life extension and relicensing are leading to increasing needs for techniques to guarantee cable functionality under both normal and accident conditions.

Cable Life Assessment

– Cable Material Aging/Degradation Modeling – accelerated aging tests introduce new questions which must be taken into account, such as whether short exposure to high temperature is equivalent to long times at moderate temperature, and how to treat the combined effects of time, temperature and radiation dose rate. Ironically, low temperature can inhibit self-healing in polymers. A new promising technique involves measuring the oxygen consumption of the insulating material, which could permit very accurate aging measurements in a short time.

– Lab vs Natural Aging – The Sandia Cable Repository of Aged Polymer Samples (SCRAPS) – Sandia maintains a library of thousands of samples of common cable materials that have been aged in the lab, representing over 2000 separate experimental aging environments.

Condition Monitoring Research

– Electric NDE – a new Electric Cable Evaluation Facility (ECEF) is just going into operation, providing cable tray and conduit systems typical of power plants. The cables have fully characterized mechanical defects, hidden for NDE systems to locate as a “blind” test. To keep things interesting, the size, type, distance down the cable, etc. are varied from one cable to the next. Some cables have no defects. Special access ports permit visual observation of the defects following a “blind” NDE test.

ECEF will be used to test claims made by various developers for new cable NDE techniques, which historically haven’t faired well. It will also serve as a test bed for the development of new methods. Sandia has a proposal in to DOE and NRC for an evaluation of new Russian method called DIACS.

Sandia developed a new high-voltage fast pulse technique for electrical NDE (100kV, 1 nsec risetime, 10-500 nsec pulse width — low total energy insertion). It combines features of time-domain reflectometry (TDR) and partial discharge techniques, with electrical and acoustic indications of breakdown location. Sandia has done limited proof-of-principle testing that shows potential for use in a highly-constrained geometry.

(** Maybe a new approach for in-situ testing of underground distribution cable?? ** )

– Physical Monitoring – Density Technique
Preliminary research has shown a correlation between density and tensile elongation-at-break in many cable materials. Since density measurements can be made on very small samples of material, this may be a new NDE condition monitoring technique. For some materials, the density change occurs at a fairly constant rate. In others, the rate of density increase is slow, then reach a point at which it increases dramatically. The opposite can also be observed, i.e. fast at first, and then slow. Early results indicate that density measurements could represent a very useful condition monitoring technique.

“Density Measurements as a Condition Monitoring Approach .. ”
draft SAND report 1/21/98, KT Gillen, et. al.

Distrib Gen Conference

Here’s the text of a brochure for an upcoming conference on Distributed Generation. It’s put on by a company that does conferences, and they seem to have done a good job assembling the players in DG, and put together an interesting agenda. If you’re interested, I suggest you call (781) 736-0800 and ask them to fax or mail a copy of their brochure. They don’t have a website.

Power Quality and Reducing Energy Costs

April 28-29, 1998 Back Bay Hilton, Boston MA
May 6-7 1998, Adam’s Mark Hotel, Philadelphia PA

Learn Winning Strategies & Case Studies From These Industry Leaders:

Official Sponsor Organizations:
AEE — EPRI — GRI — EEI — International Private Energy Association — End-User News — Bloomberg Energy Services — Distributed Power Coalition of America — Caterpillar Inc. — Source Book: The Energy Industry’s Journal of Issues — Cogeneration & Competitive Power Journal

End-users attend for less than half price!
Attend this conference to learn how to take advantage of the opportunities and understand the issues for the installation of Distributed Generation

Opportunities: Improved generating & fuel efficiencies and reduced emissions;
Smaller optimum plant size Issues: Grid connection; Dispatchability; Systems protection; Load interactions; Control tools

Opportunities: PURPA; EPAct; Federal and State incentive programs and tax initiatives Issues: FERC’s order 888/889; Clean Air Act Amendments

Issues: Higher initial cost of some technologies; Determining localized costs, localized benefits, and value of service; Wholesale and retail wheeling on the horizon

Opportunities: Cleaner fuels and reduced emissions of technologies; Small foot print and modular technologies facilitates
Issues: filing and compliance responsibilities
This conference has been researched and designed specifically for all industrial, commercial, government and institutional end-users including
* National Accounts Energy Buyers & Operations Managers
* Commercial & Governmental Property/Facility Managers
* Industrial/Manufacturing Facility Managers/Energy Buyers
* Building Managers & Plant Engineers
>From and on-site generators, hospitals & healthcare facilities, manufacturers, schools and universities, commercial real estate developers and municipalities

**** Special Discount rates for Industrial, Commercial, Institutional Energy Consumers and On-sight Generators Half off the registration fee! (also Federal, State & Local Government Employees)


* Energy Service Companies & Consultants
* Outsourcing Firms, Third Party Contractors, Performance Contractors
* Electric & Gas Utility Marketing Managers
* Energy Producers, Brokers and Marketers

Send several members of your energy engineering and management team and save! We’ve set up special team discounts when you register 3 or more delegates at the same time! For more information call (781) 736-0800 for details.


or Wednesday May 6,1998 – Philadelphia

8:00 Registration & Continental Breakfast


Kenneth S. Dee, President & CEO, GLOBAL ENERGY SOLUTIONS

The direction of regulation and deregulation of the changing energy industry will drive the future of distributed generation. On the one hand if deregulation provides maximum flexibility at the wholesale level, distributed generation will benefit. However, on the other hand the regulation of the T&D rates could have either a positive or negative impact.
· Ascertain the recent legislative/regulatory changes affecting generation development and the opportunities created
· Examine the economic issues surrounding deregulation and their impact on distributed generation – both favorable and unfavorable
· Identifying markets with favorable environments
· Learn strategies to drive distributed generation potential · deregulation
· regulated rate structure
· Learn how and when it makes sense to combine with others when installing on-site generation
· Understanding the new role of the utility when installing distributed or on-site generation
· The outlook for tapping global markets

Stephen J. Remen, Managing Director, NATIONAL ENERGY CHOICE
Jerry White, Vice President of marketing, COMMONWEALTH EDISON COMPANY
Distributed (on-site) power will be competing with unregulated, rather than unregulated power markets. To the extent true competition rationalizes markets for power, the economies of all types of substitutes for system power, including distributed generation may change. It is absolutely important for both vendors of distributed generation and the potential customers to understand the economics of new technology breakthroughs and their place in the restructured marketplace.
· Understanding the basic economic drivers of DistGen
· Analyzing the break-even prices to take advantage of DistGen
· When gains are real and permanent
· Learning how to forecast benefits from DistGen
· Relationships to transmission and distribution cost: Assessing T&D rates
· Backup services from the network
· Stranded and social cost avoidance
· For Vendors: Understanding the types of customers that can be good targets
· For Customers: Understanding whether DistGen is for you

Anuj Arya, Principal, BOOZ, ALLEN & HAMILTON

10:40 Exhibit Viewing & Networking Refreshment Break

· Analysis of recent DistGen market Studies
· Matching technologies to applications
· The virtual power plant: Using standby generators to your maximum advantage
· Distributed resources after electric utility industry restructuring
· Environmental policy options for DistGen
· The use of renewables for distributed power


· Understanding DistGen as a disruptive technology
· How the impact of DistGen will create new ways of planning capital expenditures
· Why the major portion of future power will be generated by distributed resources:
· economic benefits
· environmental benefits: low noise, low emissions, low weight
· simplicity and flexibility
· multi-fuel and fuel diversity
· power quality and reliability

S. K. Suman, Director, Business Development, ENERGIS RESOURCES

The emergence of new technologies and business practice embodied in distributed electric generation has created opportunities for manufacturers, utilities and their energy providers. This presentation addresses the their concerns and issues, while examining existing and emerging products for DG including specific performance characteristics and case study applications. DG can be the solution to the problems of facing today’s electric industry including: · Rapid growth in manufacturing facilities often creates problems and stresses for power generation sources and power delivery
· Combinations of distant generation, limited electric distribution facilities and uneven demand for electric power creates a less than optimum situation for both customers and their utility suppliers
· Manufacturing productivity and product quality in modern manufacturing facilities is susceptible to interruptions in service and fluctuations in power quality
· The ability to attract and maintain a world-class manufacturing base requires access to reliable and cost-competitive delivered energy

Paul Bautista, Program Team Leader, Power Generation, GAS RESEARCH INSTITUTE

A financial look at the options available to EPG customers and governmental entities. This analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the various lease options allows you to determine which options are right for your particular situation. This talk includes a look at comparing lease pricing and review of credit information requirements.
· What are your financing options?
· Determining your financing strategy
· Finance vs. Tax ease options: advantages and disadvantages of lease options
· Understanding municipal leases and their advantages
· Factors that influence lease payments
· Lease cost comparisons
· What credit information is required for financing?

Jim Yule, International Accounts Manager, Global Accounts Division, CATERPILLAR FINANCIAL SERVICES
Distributed generation offers tremendous opportunities. With deregulation, however, electric prices will fluctuate and in most cases drop. How far and how fast they fall will affect the profitability of your distributed generation. Asses the risks, and learn how to mitigate them to ensure you get the lowest electricity costs
· Understand expected technological advances in generation
· Learn about potential market events that will affect electricity prices
· Discover how to identify and asses the risks associated with distributed generation that most affect your business · Identify partners to help mitigate risk
· Master techniques to mitigate the risk to profitability of your distributed generation

End users and third parties have substantial potential stranded costs sunk into existing DG systems. Are these actually potentially stranded benefits? What roles can existing and new distributed generation play in competitive markets? Does the nature of the T&D system provide niche opportunities especially in zones prone to higher locational costs and congestion charges?
· Analysis of distributed generation in ISO structures
· e.g. NYISO
· dispatchability and demand reducing measures
· Cost-based vs. market-based transmission and distribution rates
· The role of DistGen in an ESCO’s offering of competitive services
· To capitalize investment or ride with market prices

Ruben Brown, President, THE E CUBED COMPANY LLC

2:45 Exhibit Viewing & Networking Refreshment Break
Distributed generation is often most useful when connected in parallel with the grid, particularly for achieving greater reliability. However this raises a host of issues including:
· Types and costs of various interconnection methods
· Economic evaluations of benefits vs. costs
· Factors influencing equipment requirements: Cost effective synchronization and switch gear equipment
· Parallel switching equipment to seamlessly connect generators to internal load
· Alternatives to traditional approaches

Lee Willis, Institute Fellow, Electric Systems Technology Institute, ABB SYSTEMS CONTROLS

Many factories, hospitals and office buildings have standby generators that are normally used only when there are power outages. Because the power seldom fails, these standby generators almost never go on-line. Therefore a significant amount of capital is tied up in idle equipment. The underlying economic strength of this strategy is in converting that idle equipment into increased capacity. From the utilities perspective, power generated at a customers site reduces load at peak times. It truly creates a win-win situation. This discussion covers the nuts and bolts of turning your emergency generating system into dollars including · Interconnectivity and control
· Advantages and opportunities
· Cost considerations
· Obstacles to overcome
· Step-by-step implementation
· Working with non-power regulatory agencies: EPA, Medical Licensing Bureau, etc.

Currently most distributed resources are used as demand-side management tools by accident. Utilities have offered interruptible rates and customers have on their own controlled installed stand-by generators. To date little has been done to maximize the benefits fo both the utility and the customer. This session covers the communications infrastructure and control strategies to reap the most benefit from small, physical separated resources.
· How to aggregate and control smaller generator sets spread out at multiple locations to wheel power and provide ancillary
services as a single larger source in the power markets
· distributed resources as spinning reserve
· distributed resources as supplemental reserve
· distributed resources as a futures hedge
· distributed resources acting as voltage support
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????· Maintaining and improving emergency power and reliability
· defined fixed cost of power and services to the customer

Jeff Whitham, President, ENCORP, INC.
Douglas W. Salter, Vice President-Engineering, ENCORP, INC.
Day Two – Wednesday, April 29, 1998 – Boston
or Thursday May 7,1998 – Philadelphia

8:15 Continental Breakfast
Kenneth S. Dee, President & CEO, GLOBAL ENERGY SOLUTIONS

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????· How to become actively involved in developing DistGen policy and using feedback to identify gaps

Patricia Hoffman, Program Manager, Office of Industrial Technologies, US Department of ENERGY

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????· Review of current and emerging technologies
· issues and opportunities for deployment of DistGen
· Examples of recent EPRI utility case studies
· EPRI’s integrated program

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????10:10 MARKET OUTLOOK & IMPACT FOR INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINES IN DISTRIBUTED, ON-SITE GENERATION
· New market forces: How the re-regulation of US markets is creating a resurgence for distributed generation · Understanding the economics involved when considering gas turbines
· costs vs. benefits
· when it makes sense and when it doesn’t
· Grasping the environmental impacts, issues and benefits of cogeneration and combined heat and power (CHP)
· Insights into the advanced turbine systems program

Richard Brent, Marketing Manager, Distributed Generation, SOLAR TURBINES INC.

10:40 Exhibit Viewing & Networking Refreshment Break

On-site power generation systems in various applications ranging from standby to load management to gas-engine chillers or heat recovery are being uses by customers today to reduce and control energy costs and improve reliability. This session shows you how to take advantage of these viable and manageable options:
· Using standby power as an insurance policy
· Economic case studies with interruptible and curtailable rate contracts
· When peak generation makes sense
· The feasibility of gas engine cooling vs. electric drives
· How to determine the economic viability of on-site generation with heat recovery
· Simple positive cash flow analysis – “The Acid Test”
· How to overcome environmental concerns for applying the product i.e. Sound and exhaust emissions, fuel storage
· Minimizing operational risk management with guaranteed maintenance contracts and limited constructions risks via complete factory systems
· Realizing the value of on-site generation systems

John Swanson, EPG Market Manager, CATERPILLAR INC.

· Thought processes behind the decisions: Steps to take before you get started
· Working with you local utility and local government
· Fuel supply and environmental issues and constraints
· Selecting the generation equipment to best meet your needs
· Estimating current and future loads
· Financial evaluations and follow-up techniques

Kurt Bresser, Facilities Manager, TEMPLE UNIVERSITY (Philadelphia)
Christopher Curran, Operations Manager, ZAPCO/STOP & SHOP (Boston)

12:15 Luncheon for Speakers & Delegates

· Understanding the global framework on the technical and commercial benefits of distributed power
· Understanding the “big picture” on DistGen and the alliance between Unicom and AlliedSignal
· Market drivers and commercial applications
· What are the challenges in implementing a distributed generation strategy?
· How the TurboGenerator™ works
· Understanding when and where this maybe the right choice for your company
· Determining the economics of implementation and return on investment
· What are some of the additional benefits of the TurboGenerator™?
· Where we stand now and visions of the future for distributed generation

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Christopher D. Maloney, Managing Director, Corporate Development, UNICOM CORPORATION

· Avoiding power quality glitches: The “sleeper” problem of the high-tech age · Prospective changes in the grid due to deregulation of bulk generation · Alternatives and adjuncts to on-site generation: Batteries, flywheels, SMES · An overview of advances in superconductor technology
· SMES (superconducting magnetic energy storage):
· what is it?
· how does it work?
· what are the economics
· under what circumstances should it be considered?
· Case studies of SMES applications in the US and around the world

John B. Howe, Director, Electric Industry Affairs, AMERICAN SUPER CONDUCTOR CORPORATION (Former Chairman, Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities)

This talk present the critical issues confronting a facility manager attempting to establish or maintain a distributed generation facility.
· The critical elements for air permitting: What to watch out for · How location influences permits
· Understanding the various technology issues surrounding permitting
· Where to go and who to talk to get your permit
· what are governing agencies looking for and require from you
· Establishing a realistic time table · when to start
· what needs to be done and when
· Recognizing local issues and concerns

Bruce K. Maillet, Director of Air Resources, EMCON

3:10 Exhibit Viewing & Networking Refreshment Break

Industrial and commercial energy users are currently faced with many choices for reducing energy costs. From getting deregulation savings expectations, to energy project development, to outsourcing. This presentation allows energy users to evaluate the benefits of letting someone else manage your energy assets allowing you to focus on you core business plans.
· How much can your organization expect to save from energy deregulation
· Why a well-defined energy strategy produces lasting value
· Understanding how the energy development process works
· How the latest transaction structures work – and which ones benefit you the most
· Why the win-win transaction yields benefits long past initial development
· How to evaluate outsourcing of energy assets
· How to find energy efficiency and turn it into bottom-line value
· Navigating the politics of energy outsourcing

Charles M. O’Donnell. Project Manager – Development, TRIGEN-CINERGY SOLUTIONS LLC

· Outsourcing defined: variations of outsourcing and what it can include
· Why outsource?
· business, organizational and financial considerations
· Is outsourcing right for your organization?
· evaluating organizational interests and opportunities
· Choosing an outside vendor
· What to look for and how to evaluate each vendor
· Developing your outsourcing vendor relationship: Long term benefits and how to get them

Brent Stanley, Vice President, TRIGEN HQ ENERGY SERVICES

· Alternative models for manufacturers and large industrial consumers weary or uncertain of:
· gas transportation issues
· future energy-related capital investment needs
· energy wheeling timing
· internal staffing needs and requirements
· Progressive development of a manufacturing energy strategy leading to facility ownership and operations by others
· How to form an “energy island”
· Understanding “energy island” economics
· Lessons learned from Simpson Company’s outsourcing of energy assets

Jackson Mueller, Energy Manager, SIMPSON INVESTMENT CO.

5:15 Conclusion of Conference


Sandia’s PV News: Possible Procurement for Remote Power

(Forwarding note about renewable funding source…)


Subject: Sandia’s PV News: Possible Procurement for Remote Power
Date: 18 Mar 1998 16:54:03 -0700


Last year, the Congress passed legislation, as follows:

“Federal buildings/ Remote power initiatives — The House and Senate each included proposals intended to direct the Department (of Energy) to identify and pursue near term opportunities to exploit the strengths of solar and renewable energy technologies. The conference agreement includes both initiatives and provides $5,000,000 for these activities. The Department is directed to provide the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations with a program plan which includes a funding profile, and criteria for awarding proposals. All proposals must include a cost benefit analysis. The Department may approve only proposals that have verifiable, favorable cost benefits over a period of not more than ten years. Cost benefits shall be based exclusively on actual monetary costs and savings.”

As part of its response to this legislation, the Department of Energy issued a procurement through its State Energy Program office for up to $1.2 million in cost-shared projects, with the Department’s share being 25% of the cost, awarded in the form of a grant. The proposals that were submitted total substantially less than the available funds, so the Department is considering reissuing the procurement. The Department has asked for our assistance in publicizing this opportunity. In particular, we feel that the renewable energy industry may bring projects that would meet the procurement requirements to the attention of the states.

It is our understanding that the procurement requires that proposals be submitted through offices of state government, but does not require state matching funds. All matching funds could be provided by a private party for a privately-owned project as long as the state were willing to participate in proposing the project to the Department.

We would like feedback on whether there is sufficient interest in these projects to justify reissuing this call for proposals. Also, we are interested in feedback on the content of the statement of work below. Note, however, that the ten-year cost/benefit period is a requirement of the legislation. Please reply to this e-mail or via the phone numbers listed below.

The complete procurement may be found at

Only 6.52 is proposed to be reissued.

Total Funds: At least $1.2 million Estimated number of projects: 12 or more
Match: 300%; higher leveraging encouraged

In much of the developing world, and portions of the U.S., the costs of electricity transmission and distribution systems are prohibitive. As a result, large amounts of electricity, heating and cooling is provided by comparatively expensive and polluting diesel equipment or gasoline. In many cases renewable energy technologies are cost-competitive, but underutilized because of lack of consumer acceptance or reliability. This solicitation focuses on applications of renewable energy for remote energy needs, to demonstrate cost-effective, modular technologies as reliable, easy to operate, and easy to maintain.

Projects Requested in FY 1998:
Grants are available for design, purchase and installation of renewable energy technologies including solar hot water (SHW), where they would displace or avoid the use of diesel fuel or gasoline.

Examples of remote applications could include island mini-grid systems that supplement or displace existing or planned diesel/gasoline generation, or end-of-line systems or off-grid applications that could not be cost-effectively served by line extensions. All projects must monetary cost/benefit ratios over an analysis period of 10 years or less. They must also include an estimate of avoided or displaced fossil fuel generation, and an estimate of the number of similar applications that might be possible. Projects that demonstrate new products or applications that have a significant future market potential are desired. Examples could include products that also renewable energy technologies like PV and SHW systems that combine heat and electricity services, or projects that demonstrate new applications like telecommunication services for off-grid or remote areas.

Evaluation Criteria:
Value in demonstrating a viable application of renewable energy that can be replicated at other sites, including the number and size of potential applications. (30%)
2) Technical quality of plans for system design, operation and maintenance. (20%) 3) Cost sharing above the 300% match requirement. (20%) follow-up plans for disseminating results and lessons learned within the State, and/or nationally. (10%) 5) Demonstration of new technology or applications to advance consumer acceptance and/or reliability, for example building integration, or new types of services for an area. (10%) 6) Value of displaced diesel or other fossil fuel generation and other


Sandia PV Projects
(505) 844-3698 (phone)
(505) 844-6541 (fax)

Sandia is a partner in the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV). Work performed at Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the NCPV is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Photovoltaic and Wind Technology, James Rannels, Director.