Cleantech Venture Forum II

Cleantech Venture Network’s second venture forum in San Franciso, Apr 30- May1 was a great success. Over 260 people in attendance included mostly investors, along with representatives of the 23 companies selected to present (from over 200 companies that applied).

You may recall reading about Cleantech Venture Network in UFTO Notes 26 July, 1 October ’02.

The surge of interest in cleantech was noteworthy. Many new faces were there, some of them very prominent VC firms whose usual sectors of IT and telecom have lost their lustre. These investors seem to be checking out energy tech and cleantech to see what the opportunities are, and whether it might represent a “next big thing”. Some of them are actually doing deals, too. Panels sessions discussed this very trend, while others went into water, Asia, and the overall outlook for investing in cleantech. The new issue of the Venture Monitor, due in a couple of weeks (for members only!) will have details from the panel discussions.

The presenting companies ranged from a successful biopesticide company (better, cheaper, safer than chemicals…really), to several hydrogen, fuel cell, and solar PV companies, and some water and waste management. (The PV companies were described in another UFTO Note just recently). Here’s the list. (If you want additional information, please contact me. I’m not including details here in the interests of brevity, but I can send you a version with longer descriptions, as well as individual company’s own writeups. Some may appear in future notes.)

AgraQuest, Inc. – Natural pesticides
aqWise – Wastewater treatment retrofit increases throughput
CellTech Power – Fundamentally new solid oxide fuel cell acts like a refuelable battery.
FiveStar Technologies – Advanced materials via cavitation technology
Global Solar – thin film PV in production
H2Gen – On-site hydrogen generation via small scale steam methane reforming
Hoku Scientific, Inc – PEM fuel cell membrane to replace Nafion
HyRadix Inc. ? Small scale hydrogen generators via thermal reforming
Integrated Env. Technologies – Waste Treatment via Plasma
iPower – Distributed Generation ? New genset
Mach Energy ? Energy management services to commercial buildings
PolyFuel Inc – Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) systems
PowerTube – Geothermal powerplant downhole
Powerzyme – Enzymatic fuel cell
PrecisionH2 – Hydrogen, power and carbon from methane, via cold plasma (no CO2!)
Primotive – unique electric motor/generator
QuestAir – Gas purification via pressure swing absorption
Raycom Technologies – Thin film solar cells via high volume sputter coating
Sensicore – Sensors monitor water quality cheaply
Solaicx – Polycrystalline silicon PV
Solicore – Thin film lithium batteries
Verdant – Wave power via underwater windmills

Here’s a definition of “Cleantech”, from the website:
**The concept of “clean” technologies embraces a diverse range of products, services, and processes that are inherently designed to provide superior performance at lower costs, greatly reduce or eliminate environmental impacts and, in doing so, improve the quality of life. Clean technologies span many industries, from alternative forms of energy generation to water purification to materials-efficient production techniques.**

I strongly suggest you consider an investor membership, for dealflow, Venture Monitor, networking and other benefits. ( The next Forum will be held this Fall in New York.

Smart Setback for Room Thermostats

Smart Setback for Room Thermostats

Smart Systems International appears to be succeeding where others have failed, in implementing occupancy-based thermostat setback. Applied first in hotel guest rooms, their systems are now seeing increased interest for use in schools and offices. The technology is “smart” enough to overcome the obstacles that have stopped other attempts, i.e. occupant discomfort and impatience, though the solutions they’ve developed may not be immediately evident.

Upon detailed review, the basis of their success begins to emerge–basically, they’ve thought the problems through and solved them. The system automatically relaxes the heating or air conditioning when guests leave, but in controlled so that it can be restored to the desired temperature in a fixed amount of time (adjustable to 5, 11, 18 minutes) when they return.

The best indication of the merits of their claims is in the market acceptance they’re enjoying with some big name hotel chains and others. Conservation is back in the forefront, and this technology could be a good addition to the arsenal of any ESCO, utility, or building owner.

Ron Davies, President and CEO, or
Tom Kearin, CFO,
Smart Systems International, Las Vegas, NV,


The following material is adapted from the company’s website and press releases.

Smart Systems International develops, manufactures and sells patented in-room energy control systems. These products are designed to support three basic requirements: use advanced thermodynamic algorithms to ensure customer comfort is not sacrificed while maximizing energy savings; use state of the art wireless technology to ensure installation takes minutes, not hours; and design for simplicity and low cost. As a result, SSI controls produce energy savings of 20% – 40% per year without compromising customer comfort and deliver pay backs of 12 – 18 months. The system can control through-the-wall units in individual hotel rooms, a central HVAC system with fan coils, heat pumps, or other HVAC equipment.

The company has installed thousands of Smart Systems in hotel rooms across the U.S. from Alaska to Hawaii and the Caribbean including at such marquee brands as Courtyard by Marriott, Crowne Plaza, Embassy Suites, Fairfield by Marriott, Hampton Inn, Holiday Inn, Homestead Village, Silverleaf Resorts, Sunterra Resorts and others. In addition to the lodging industry, Smart Systems is selling its energy controls to schools, home builders, energy services companies and electric utilities, and the US Postal Service. Installations include the Clark County School District, Escambia County (Pensacola Florida) Schools, Miami Dade Schools, Post Offices in Las Vegas Nevada, Sitterle Homes, the Trane Company and the Public Service Company of New Mexico.

Smart Systems International recently announced the completion of an $11.0 million equity financing, which they will use to support increased sales activities and to expand distribution channels, staffing, customer field support, and inventory.


A recent article about the company can be found at:


Smart Systems International Products

Smart Systems 1000

The Smart Systems 1000 is the original “People Sensing Technology” energy management system. It has been installed in thousands of hotel rooms in every conceivable climate from Anchorage, Alaska to San Juan, Puerto Rico, to prove its performance capabilities. Designed for the fancoil and through the wall systems, the 1000 is just as effective on any window air conditioners. Hotel owners appreciate not only the ease of installation and lack of maintenance required, but also, benefit immediately from the drop in peak demand charges, as well as reduction in energy use of 30-50%. There are two basic models: a plug ‘n’ play unit which simply plugs into the nearest outlet, and a hardwired version which is wired with the HVAC unit.

Smart Systems 2000

The Smart Systems 2000 is the “eye” and “ear” of the base stations and an intergral link in SSDN. It uses passive infrared motion detectors to determine occupied and unoccupied states. It has a 25 foot radius and 360 degree detection range when placed on 8 feet ceilings. It communicates wirelessly through encoded transmissions with the base station. It operates on 4 AA batteries which last about 3 years.

Smart Systems 5000

The Smart Systems 5000 is the radical new design from Smart Systems. Unlike its predecessors, it has a user interface and buttons for various functions unavailable on the Smart Systems 1000. This is the full service model which accommodates users’ sleep time requirements and allows for the adjustment of recovery time at any time. The icon system of buttons and large digit LCD have been tested extensively for simplicity, intuitiveness, and ease of use. All of the instructions in this non-programmable unit fit neatly inside the cover. An adapter allows it to control HVAC systems higher than 24 VAC (the standard for home thermostats), making it the ultimate solution for all HVAC systems: residential, commercial, and industrial. The 5000 communicates wirelessly with PC’s.


The Smart Systems energy management system uses a wireless data and command network protocol, the Smart Systems Digital Network (SSDN), to accomplish specific tasks inside and around buildings and premises, including residential, commercial, and industrial properties. The SSDN is being distributed to third party vendors for use in integrating SSDN communications technology in their products. The SSDN is hardware independent and as such can be set up in many ways. The protocol is based upon a set of common integrated chips using standard 8-bit UART technologies. The chip set, protocol and software needed to set up the SSDN are standard and common components and no special proprietary chip sets, microcode, or software are required. Download the SSDN by clicking here.

Las Vegas Energex2000

Las Vegas Lemonade

ENERGEX’2000 GlobeEx’2000 35th IECEC
Riviera Hotel Convention Center, LAS VEGAS, USA
JULY 23-28, 2000

If ever there was a time to make lemonade (i.e. when the world gives you lemons), this conference was it. One of the worst organized, most jumbled, and light on content imaginable. A great many speakers simply didn’t show up. Attendance was mostly by DOE, 3rd world energy officials, academics, and a few vendors and entrepreneurs. It was also very heavy on Nevada as a great place to do business, most notably development of the Nevada Test Site. (Also, I would not recommend the Riviera Hotel.)


So, for some lemonade. Plenary speeches, which mostly consisted of high level pep talks and very general overviews of the energy situation around the world, did offer a few good points.

– Dan Reicher (DOE Assist. Secty for Energy Effic) gave an optimistic and aggressive account of DOE’s commitments to renewables and efficiency, with emphasis on cost-effectiveness. He noted that in 1999, for the first time, more new windpower came on line than new nuclear.

– Nevada State Senator Randolph Townsend, who spearheaded deregulation in Nevada, actually said–if your legislators ever tell you they think they know what’s best, they’re dead wrong. The whole business of deregulation is one of surprises and unintended consequences.

– Admiral Truly, Director of NREL, suggested that the growth of the petroleum industry in the first half of the 20th century is going to prove to be an excellent analogy for what is starting to happen with biomass refining in the 21st century.

– Richard Sonstelie, recently retired CEO of Puget Sound Power, explained that the utility industry has always known that generation, transmission and distribution are entirely different businesses, and that generation has never been a natural monopoly. He went on to develop the idea that distribution isn’t either, and that it’s been terribly oversimplified. Distribution actually consists of a long list of distinct businesses (e.g., network planning, construction, outage response, call centers, customer research, energy procurement, meter reading, billing and collections, etc.). The only aspect of the pipes and wires business that can even begin to be viewed as a natural monopoly is the ownership of pipes and wires–in that it doesn’t make sense to have more than one set in any given location (there are exceptions to this, as we know, and some would argue the point.). Therefore, it isn’t necessary to treat the entire Disco as a regulated monopoly. Most of its activities can be handled on a competitive business model, with incentives and penalties to assure that service/reliability standards are met. After all, pipes and wires are “transportation” businesses, and their metrics should more like those applied to Federal Express. Utilities are already outsourcing what they’re not best at, and some are doing for other utilities–as new lines of business–what they’re good at themselves.

– Jan Pepper, renewables expert and until recently with APX, in charge of setting up their green power market, outlined the growing scale of green power programs. Eight states have already adopted renewable portfolio standards, and 13 have systems benefit charge used to support green power. Truth in labeling/certification agencies are emerging. An intriguing new trend–the “green” attribute of green power can be traded separately from the actual KWH’s themselves. This enhances the marketability of power from intermittent generators.


Two topics that got a lot of attention: Building Heating, Cooling and Power (BCHP is the new acronym) and geothermal, particularly the local heating and cooling variety. (If there is interest, I can provide more information on these items.)

Building Heating, Cooling and Power (BCHP)

The DOE has gotten very interested in on-site generation which maximizes the use of the waste heat for heating and cooling. The BCHP Initiative has over 70 participants, including government, utilities, ESCOs, manufacturers, vendors, etc.

The gas industry continues to push hard on gas cooling. The GAX heat pump technology promises 30% higher efficiency than the best gas furnace, and 100 beta units will go into the field next year. There is increasing emphasis on humidity control through the use of dessicants.
Rocky Research is a technology development company in Las Vegas that has a impressive array of work going on in heating, cooling and refrigeration, and is looking for commercialization partners for several of its technologies.

Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium is a non-profit organization advancing the use of “GeoExchange” heating and cooling systems, notably in commercial and industrial applications, in addition to residential. (GeoExchange Systems work by moving heat, rather than by converting chemical energy to heat like in a furnace. Every GeoExchange System has three major subsystems or parts: a geothermal heat pump to move heat between the building and the fluid in the earth connection, an earth connection for transferring heat between its fluid and the earth, and a distribution subsystem for delivering heating or cooling to the building.)

One supplier, ClimateMaster, offers a range of advanced products geared to commerical and residential, including a split system that can be used in combination with a traditional furnace.


The most unusual find–I met a German project developer with a story about a “solar chimney”. They actually built a demo in Spain (with Finosa), with at 200 meter chimney that ran for 7 years. The fullscale design calls for a 950 meter chimney, 135 meters in diameter, surrounded by 4 mile diameter circular heat absorber structure (like a greenhouse roof). Heat rising through the chimney will generate 100 MW by turning a fan blade in the base. Crops can be grown in the covered area, and black tubing filled with water can provide storage to make power 24 hours a day. They already have permitted projects and are raising money. The company also has a number of solar trough programs in Spain, Crete and Jordan.

LBNL Building Technology

(One of a series of notes detailing results of recent visits to
Lawrence Berkeley National Labs – LBNL)

Building Technology Dept.

Commercial Building Systems, Simulation, Windows & Daylighting, Lighting, and Applications
LBNL has one of the largest US building RD&D activities; active since 1976 in this field, approx. $18M per year in funding currently; with about $12M from DOE and remainder from other sources, addressing most major aspects of building energy use, including hardware, systems, software, indoor environmental issues.
Stephen Selkowitz, Dept. Head, 510-486-5064


Diagnostics for Building Operation and Commissioning
Commercial buildings alone consume about 15% of all energy at a cost of $85 billion annually. Half of this consumption is wasted, compared to what is cost-effectively achievable. To realize these savings requires a careful examination of the process by which buildings are designed, built, commissioned, and operated, using a life-cycle approach.

A multi-year project is underway to develop and apply technology to improve building operation and maintenance. In a collaborative effort among researchers, building owners, utilities and private industry, an interdisciplinary team has been gathered to:
– Assess the current state of performance technology
– Develop an appropriate information gathering and diagnosis capability
– Test this new diagnostic system in real buildings


Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS)
160 Sansome, San Francisco

The first IMDS has been installed and is now operating in an 18 story 100,000 sq ft, class A, San Francisco office building, built in 1964.

The IMDS includes 56 sensors, 34 calculated fields (for a total of 90 monitored data points), computer-based communications, data archival and retrieval capabilities, diagnostic information processing, data visualization, and other components that meet the needs expressed by building owners and property management companies. Existing proven hardware and systems were used, and the focus is on obtaining detailed accurate technical data (e.g. sufficient for calculations for a performance contract). Note this is a passive system, performing measurements only, and not control of equipment. A detailed specification is to be published.

This system implements a top-down approach, with diagnostic and information visualization algorithms, at three levels.
– Level I diagnoses whole-building performance at the aggregate level,
comparing to other buildings with similar energy services.
– Level II examines major end-use systems, and
– Level III focuses on major subsystems.

Savings opportunities of 10% were identified in the first four months. Life cycle cost issues have come into play, for example, improper rapid cycling of equipment. The active participation of the building’s innovative owner and operators should help publicize the effort and influence others in the industry. More recent findings suggest that the IMDS has proven extremely useful to the on-site building operators, helping them to improve control of the entire building.

Project Team Leader: Mary Ann Piette, 510-486-6286,
The project homepage:

“Development and Testing of an Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System for Large Commercial Buildings,” (paper presented at the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, August 1998).

There is a detailed “Virtual Tour” at:
A project overview appears at: (


Building Life-Cycle Information Support System (BLISS)

BLISS is intended to provide a distributed computing environment for managing, archiving, and providing access to the wide variety of data and information that is generated across the complete life-cycle of a building project.

— > Identify Contraints/Opportunities — >
** Design — > Construction — > Commissioning — >
Monitoring — > Operations/Maintenance — >
Retrofits/Use changes — >
Re-evaluate Opportunities — > **

BLISS requires standardization in both a common building database model and in the mechanisms for transferring this information between tools.

The project has three major elements: (1) to specify the distributed software architecture, (2) to develop a life-cycle building model database schema, and (3) to develop a mechanism to capture and update “design intent” throughout the life cycle. The distributed systems architecture describes how various software components communicate, and the building model schema specifies the structure and semantics of the database (e.g. how performance metrics are defined and represented quantitatively).

BLISS is being developed within the evolving software specification from the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI). The IAI is a non-profit alliance of the building industry with six international member chapters. Its mission is to integrate the industry by specifying Industry Foundation Classes (IFCs) as a universal language to improve communication, productivity, delivery time, cost, and quality throughout the building life cycle.

Currently, Metracker is a tool being developed to help capture design intent via a number of performance metrics and then track changes in those metrics over the life of the building. The data schema is built on the IAI building data model. It is being tested on a new building in Oakland CA.
Contact Rob Hitchcock, 510-486-4154,


Remote Building Monitoring and Operations(RBMO)

A prototype system has been developed which permits remote monitoring and control of multiple commercial buildings across the Internet from a single control center. Such a system would be used by owner/operators of multiple buildings, such a school districts, governments, universities, large retailers, utility companies, building management firms, etc. Average savings estimated at 15% would come from reducing energy waste from equipment that runs when it does not need to, set point optimizations, and correcting operations and control deficiencies.

The project was initiated as a demonstration of the use of internet protocols and open systems for building monitoring, permitting integration of equipment from multiple vendors. It addresses similar IT issues of authentication, access-security, etc., which arise in a major Lab program on sharing scientific instrumentation over the internet.

The project includes the following components.

An Internet-to-building-EMCS (Energy Management Control System) gateway which speaks CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) protocol atop TCP/IP on the Internet side and either (preferably) BACnet atop TCP/IP, or a proprietary EMCS communications protocol, to the building EMCS.

Development of applications-level object specifications for HVAC objects, e.g., chillers.

A remote building monitoring and control center which will provide data visualization, database management, building energy simulation, and energy usage analysis tools.

Deployment and testing of the system in multiple buildings with diverse types of EMCS systems. Our goal is to assess scalability of the system to large numbers of buildings, both in terms of performance and accommodating heterogeneity of control systems and HVAC systems.

Remote control of HVAC systems – this awaits the availability of a secure CORBA implementation.
Frank Olken 510-486-5891


Simulation Research

The Building Energy Simulation User News is a quarterly newsletter for the DOE-2, BLAST, SPARK, EnergyPlus and GenOpt programs. Sent without charge, the newsletter prints documentation updates, bug fixes, inside tips on using the programs more effectively, and articles of special interest to program users. The winter issue features a cumulative index of all articles ever printed. Current issues are available electronically (below). All issues are available via regular mail, by request.

To subscribe or to request a back issue, contact: Kathy Ellington,

DOE-2 is a computer program for the design of energy-efficient buildings. Developed for DOE, DOE-2 calculates the hourly energy use and energy cost of a commercial or residential building given information about the building’s climate, construction, operation, utility rate schedule, and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment. A new version, DOE-2.2, includes an integrated SYSTEMS-PLANT program based on circulation loops with tracking of temperatures and flows, luminaire/lamp modeling of lighting systems, a window-blind thermal/daylighting model, input value defaulting using expressions, and expanded building component libraries.

EnergyPlus – A new-generation building energy simulation program based on DOE-2 and BLAST, with numerous added capabilities. Developed by the Simulation Research Group, the Building Systems Laboratory at the University of Illinois, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Lab, and DOE.

GenOpt – A tool for multi-dimensional optimization of an objective function that is computed by a simulation program. This project at LBNL is sponsored by the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences, the Swiss National Energy Fund, the Swiss National Science Foundation, and DOE.

SPARK [Simulation Problem Analysis and Research Kernel]
A program that allows users to quickly build models of complex physical processes by connecting calculation modules from a library.

BDA: Building Design Advisor – A computer program that supports the concurrent, integrated use of multiple simulation tools and databases, through a single, object-based representation of building components and systems. Based on a comprehensive design theory, the BDA acts as a data manager and process controller, allowing building designers to benefit from the capabilities of multiple analysis and visualization tools throughout the building design process. The BDA has a simple Graphical User Interface that is based on two main elements, the Building Browser and the Decision Desktop.

International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) – With international partners, develop Industry Foundation Classes(IFC) and an integrated building information model for describing buildings. Develop methods for allowing applications, such as CAD and energy analysis, to interoperate with the information model. Interoperability will allow diverse building drawing and simulation tools to share the same building description and to exchange results, thus simplifying building design, construction and operation.

RESFEN – A PC-based computer program (using DOE-2 as the simulation engine) for calculating the heating and cooling energy performance and cost of residential fenestration systems. RESFEN is free on a CD.


Windows & Daylighting
Stephen Selkowitz 510-486-5064

– > Glazing Materials Research – Low-Emittance and Solar Control; Static spectral filters; Deposition Processes

– > Characterization facilities/optical lab for in-house research, manufacturers, and to support product rating and related standards activities.

– > The Optical Data Library provides glazing layer (peer-reviewed) optical data for over 800 commercially available products; this data is used with the WINDOW and Optics software.

– > New Materials: track of new materials R&D around the world–strong ties to IEA.

– > Manage the DOE Electrochromic Initiative – 2 labs, 4 manufacturers
Electrochromics or “smart windows” have the potential for becoming an important element in building load management due to their ability to control perimeter cooling loads and lighting loads, both of which are major elements of building peak demand. Occupant control of window shading systems is notoriously unreliable. A smart window whose solar heat gain coefficient can be modulated over a 5:1 range provides a significant new opportunity. While coating development work continues at LBNL and with industry partners, a German product is being purchased by LBNL to test in an office building in Oakland, with a focus on control integration and load management issues.

– > Advanced Systems development, testing, evaluation

– > Window Properties – determining the thermal and optical performance of window systems

– > Daylighting – LBNL has recently recieved substantial funding from California utilities to help convert RADIANCE, a lighting and daylighting research tool that is highly accurate but hard to use, to a desktop environment design tool with a user friendly interface and link to CAD software. A first version will be released in 1999; improved version with additional capabilities in 2000.

– > Residential performance – support Energy Star program; Annual Energy Ratings

– > Commercial Glazing Performance- ramping up R&D in this area, beginning with development of a design guide for architects and engineers. Later will be looking at advanced facade systems and their role in intelligent buildings. Innovative building skins are seen as not only energy savers but as building features that enhance the quality of the indoor space.


Lighting Research

The Lighting Research Group researches and develops fixtures, controls, and software which employ and promote energy efficient lighting. The group is primarily funded by DOE, although some funding is provided by industry for specific projects. The group is recognized as one of the main players in the lighting industry, as both technology developers and as observers/influencers. As such they have an indepth awareness of technological developments, issues and trends in the industry.

Research projects include sources, controls, fixture design, and human factors. Software for lighting design is a major R&D area. The test lab has the equipment which is essential for testing and designing energy efficient lighting fixtures, including a goniometer, integrating sphere, and spectro-radiometer for measuring light output. There is also an electric power analyzer for testing power and power quality of light sources.

The lab has in-house and collaborative work in new kinds of light sources that are being developed — solid state, electroluminescent, white LED, and organic liquids.

Their work to design the (non-halogen) compact fluorescent torchiere has led to the commercial availability on a wide scale of these much safer and more efficient lamps. Several universities did free exchange programs for dormitory residents, and now some utilities are doing it for their customers.
(see website for more details:

Of interest to utilities, compact fluorescent bulbs (CFL) are growing in popularity, but there are issues about price, quality, and longevity. Some imports have low prices, but don’t last as long as they should. To deal with this, some utilities are specifying an unecessarily high number of life hours. Specifications need to incorporate the issue of how often lights are turned off and on, but current testing procedures don’t deal with this effectively. LBL is proposing a new approach to life testing, but lacks the funding to demonstrate it.

“Bi-level” light switching is cost effective, and it is now in the building code for the state of California. (two switches–one controls 1/3 of the lighting in a room, and the other controls the remaining 2/3). Other effective measures are photosensors (for daylighting) and occupancy sensors. But it is important to solve the right problem. Hotels got little benefit from occupancy sensors, because guests rarely leave lights on when they’re out of the room. The biggest waste was found to come from bathroom lights left blazing as a night light — providing a dimmed setting would work better.

Recently, LBL combined low-glare, lower level ambient lighting with custom designed task light fixtures, in a US Post Office sorting facility. Occupancy sensors turned the task light on only when the clerk was present. Task light levels were improved while overall energy was reduced by 70%.


Lighting Software

RADIANCE – A suite of programs for the analysis and visualization of lighting in design. Input files specify the scene geometry, materials, luminaires, time, date and sky conditions (for daylight calculations). Calculated values include spectral radiance (ie. luminance + color), irradiance (illuminance + color) and glare indices. Simulation results may be displayed as color images, numerical values and contour plots. The primary advantage of Radiance over simpler lighting calculation and rendering tools is that there are no limitations on the geometry or the materials that may be simulated. Radiance is used by architects and engineers to predict illumination, visual quality and appearance of innovative design spaces, and by researchers to evaluate new lighting and daylighting technologies. (for UNIX)

(Advanced Daylighting and Electric Lighting Integrated New Environment)
ADELINE is an integrated lighting design computer tool developed by an international research team within the framework of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 12. It provides architects and engineers with accurate information about the behaviour and the performance of indoor lighting systems. Both natural and electrical lighting problems can be solved, in simple rooms or the most complex spaces. ADELINE produces reliable lighting design results by processing a variety of data (including:geometric, photometric, climatic, optic and human response) to perform light simulations and to produce comprehensive numeric and graphic information. (for PC)

SUPERLITE 2.0 is a lighting analysis program designed to predict interior illuminance in complex building spaces due to daylight and electric lighting systems. SUPERLITE enables a user to model interior daylight levels for any sun and sky condition in spaces having windows, skylights or other standard fenestration systems.

LBL Lighting publications are available (some can be downloaded) at:

Steve Johnson 510-486-4274


Home Energy Saver

The Home Energy Saver(HES) website, announced in March ’99, brings advanced building simulation software to an interactive website to help consumers identify the technologies that will save them the most energy and money.

The Home Energy Saver quickly computes a home’s energy use on-line based on methods developed at LBNL. By changing one or more features of the modeled home, users can estimate how much energy and money can be saved and how much pollution prevented by implementing energy-efficiency improvements. All end uses (heating, cooling, major appliances, lighting, and miscellaneous uses) are included.

The Home Energy Saver’s Energy Advisor calculates energy use and savings opportunities, based on a detailed description of the home provided by the user. Users can begin the process by simply entering their zip code, and in turn receive instant initial estimates. By providing more information about the home the user will receive increasingly customized results along with energy-saving upgrade recommendations.

Developed for the ENERGY STAR Program (EPA and DOE).

The HES Mission Statement ( ) explains the way the program seeks to work with and support private-sector vendors, by complementing their efforts, not competing with them.

Nor is it intended to compete with private vendors of web-based software who seek revenues from utilities who license their products. Nevertheless, utility partnerships with HES are still possible, and indeed some have already begun.

Contact: Rich Brown, 510-486-5896,

Energy Effic. Buildings Software Survey

This email was broadcast to several email lists by the Energy Efficient Building Assoc. (EEBA) last Wednesday. It reports on the results of a user survey of building energy software, such as DOE-2.1 and ENERGY-10.

The note includes pointers to several resources for Efficient Buildings:

-> Energy Efficient Building Assoc.

-> US DOE’ Software “Tools Directory”

-> Building Environmental Science & Technology
Bion Howard, Principal

EEBA Computer Software Survey Completed

By: Bion Howard 10/97 (originally published in EEBA Journal)

Using the EEBA “open” e-mail server, EEBA associate staff solicited comments on energy efficiency design analysis and ratings software. A preliminary report has been compiled from over 40 responses sent back via the EEBA list, and other sources.

Findings from this unscientific fact-finding survey, sent to a total of 1,100 email addresses across three major list-servers (EEBA-L, Greenbuilding, and AESP-Net ) designers, engineers, architects and builders widely disagree on the usability and reliability of currently available computer tools on the market or available from the Department of Energy and other government sources. Several general themes emerge from the survey results:

1. energy design analysis software must be made easier to use; while
2. also being able to produce very accurate and detailed outputs suitable for sharing with clients;
3. it should have a graphical interface, rather than large tabular data screens;
4. the program code should be well validated preferably with peer-reviewed papers available on the results of verification / validation efforts;
5. outputs should include recognition of major energy efficiency standards and model codes compliance;
6. users should be able to access extensive help-screens, and all the data base entries for editing costs, weather inputs, economics parameters; and
7. software engineers should not forget about the large base of Macintosh users in the energy and architectural field when creating new programs.
8. execution speed of the programs should be quick without great sacrifice in accuracy of results, and
9. the ability to share data with AutoCAD was also mentioned by some respondents as an important attribute.

Building types on which analysis was focused by users were evenly split between residential and commercial and about 2/3 of the respondents indicated they performed both commercial and residential work. Also, nearly half of respondents indicated they used software for “energy ratings” and for demonstrating “code compliance.” Other answers included R&D assessments, weatherization assessment, and utility program evaluation.

Surprisingly less frequent were responses indicating use of software for HVAC system sizing. However, this may be mitigated by the fact the question did not exclude HVAC sizing from the “commercial” or the “residential” category. In fact there were several comments in the responses that software for energy design should be improved specifically to do a better job sizing equipment and distribution systems in a “whole building” context. This approach would permit changes in envelope design, passive solar and daylighting, ventilation strategies, and other modifications to the “loads” side of the equation to be rapidly digested to prepare revised equipment and distribution system sizing data.

Responders reported US Department of Energy’s “DOE-2.1” program was most widely used, followed by (in order of frequency) HOT-2000, MicroPAS / CALPAS, ENERGY-10, ASEAM, MEC-Check and Aec-REM. However, due to the small relative response there is no statistical significance associated with these responses (Note: EEBA does not yet officially endorse any computer programs for evaluating energy efficiency, but is currently considering doing so).

Most persons indicated they have been using computer software for energy analysis for over three years, with many responding that they have been using software for energy design analysis for over five years. Five responders indicated they have been using software for over 15 years ‹ so the population surveyed appeared to be fairly representative of both newer and veteran users. Also, five responded they had been using software energy design analysis tools less than three years.

Conclusions from the EEBA software survey are fairly simple.

– Users seem eager to have more functionality and whole buildings analysis capability embedded into energy design software.

– Many users have considerable experience over many years with such software, yet while DOE-2.1 was mentioned as the most frequently used program, there was no single software package that received high praise.

– There were some positive comments about the new NREL-PSIC program “Designing Low Energy Buildings” ENERGY-10 by respondents (ENERGY-10 is still under development and Version 1.2 is expected to be released in early 1998).

– Another new software package ‹ the Wright Soft “Suite” ‹ of energy analysis programs including the Wright-J program (computer version of ACCA’s Manual J cited in the EEBA Criteria) was not checked by any respondent.

EEBA will be continuing to look into the broad array of energy design software to help its members focus in on the top products providing best results. But from my experience as a user of most of the programs mentioned in this article ‹ some since 1978 ‹ it is most vital to become very familiar with whatever software you use, so errors can be avoided and so that limitations to the results are understood (all programs are limited compared to the “real world” they try to model).

Sources: More information on energy design analysis computer software can be found at the US DOE’ Software “Tools Directory”
Information on EEBA: 501[c.]3 non-profit organization
Contact: Bion Howard, Principal, Building Environmental Science & Technology

Technology Transfer Opportunities – Pacific Northwest Laboratory



Final Report

Technology Transfer Opportunities in the National Laboratories

Pacific Northwest Laboratory

Richland, WA

August 1995

Prepared for:

Utility Federal Technology Opportunities (UFTO)


Edward Beardsworth



This report is part of a series examining technology opportunities at National Laboratories of possible interest to electric utilities


1. Summary
2 PNL Organization
3. PNL Technologies & Programs
14. PNL Contacts



This report is proprietary and confidential. It is for internal use by personnel of companies that are subscribers in the UFTO multi-client program. It is not to be otherwise copied or distributed except as authorized in writing.



 This report details findings about technology and technology transfer opportunities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)that might be of strategic interest to electric utilities. It is based on a visit to PNL in March 1995, as part of the UFTO multiclient project, and on extensive contacts with PNL to track the major changes there between April and August.


Noting the tremendous scope of research underway in the research facilities of the U.S. government, and a very strong impetus on the government’s part to foster commercial partnering with industry and applications of the technology it has developed, the UFTO program has been established as a multi-client study of the opportunities thus afforded electric utilities.

PNL Overview

The Richland “Tri-Cities” area is home to a number of reactor and weapons materials production facilities, the first of which was the Hanford Site, established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan project. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is a separate multipurpose federal laboratory operated for the DOE by the Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI). Battelle, founded in the 1920’s as a not-for profit, also operates its own laboratory at its headquarters in Columbus OH. BMI took over the management of PNL as a “GOCO” (government owned contractor operated) in 1965. PNL has over 4000 people and a budget of $500 million/year, although downsizing and budget cuts are underway.

PNL’s GOCO arrangement is unique in having two kinds of contracts with DOE. One, called “1830”, is just like other DOE labs, with the usual direct funded work for DOE, work for others, CRADAs, licensing etc. The second type of contract, called “1831”, enables PNL to perform strictly commercial proprietary work for private industry, paying a use fee to DOE for the use of the facilities and overhead. 1831 programs comprise less than 10% of the total activity at PNL, and involve slightly higher rates together with the better business terms for outside clients.

Commercialization is strongly encouraged at PNL, as is multi disciplinary harvesting and reapplication of results and technology from across all areas of the lab, including “black” programs.

Several years ago, PNL made a specific long term commitment to energy, investing its own lab-directed funds (LDRD) and Battelle’s IR&D in such areas as EMF mitigation and Real Time Control of Power Systems. The primary focus has moved distinctly away from generation, and towards T&D and end-use, with continuing strong emphasis on environmental impacts and restoration and on planning and analysis.

PNL’s core competencies relevant to energy include:

Energy Systems Research: Power Systems, distributed utilities, automated diagnostics

Process Technology: Polymer coatings, reaction engineering, and process design tools

Integrated Environmental Assessment: EMF Effects, Global Modeling, Oil & Gas Cleanup.

PNL’s approach to the utility industry, which it has specifically identified as a major program direction, is to support enhanced asset utilization in the near term while preparing a leadership role in the “utility of the future”, involving real time control, distributed utility, new products, and risk/strategic environmental management.

PNL’s Commercial and Industrial efforts already have a long history with the gas industry (GRI and gas/combination utilities), working on pipelines, appliances, etc. and providing product development and commercialization support, problem solving, life/prediction/failure mode analysis, efficient repair technology, and safety and inspection technology.

PNL Organization

PNL has just completed (July 1995) a major reorganization and downsizing (with the help of McKinsey), eliminating nearly 2/3 of the upper management, and going to more of a line organization. (The “Technical Centers,” matrixed with “Business Directorates,” are no longer.) In the new order of things, “lines of business” are the major focus, drawing on personnel and capabilities across the lab, to address their particular sectors.

The technical Divisions are: Environmental and Energy Sciences, Environmental Technology, Energy, Health, National Security, and Emerging Technologies. These divisions each have a number of departments. The names of both divisions and departments are in many cases not a good indication of what goes on in them, so the best strategy for an outsider is to rely on a personal point of contact to reach the personnel and resources that are appropriate to a given topic.

PNL is strengthening its already substantial commitment (including internally funded development projects) to expanding the commercial side of the business, and seeks increased contact with private industry. The Energy Division might better be called the “Commercial and Industrial Division”. Merwin Brown, formerly of PG&E, now heads the Energy Technology Department and Line of Business, which indicates PNL’s resolve to serve the utility industry. They of course will draw on people and talents across the entire lab to meet the needs of utility clients.

PNL’s Utility Strategy

PNL and its parent, Battelle Memorial Institute, have provided significant R&D contributions to the utility industry over the past several decades. BMI is the largest contractor to GRI, and PNL alone currently serves over 30 utility clients with a range of products and services. In addition to utility support, PNL provides support to DOE’s Office of Utility Programs. PNL’s energy strategy has identified the deregulation sweeping the utility industry as a key driver for technology needs over the next several decades. In response, PNL has increased its emphasis on the needs of the utility industry. PNL’s utility industry has two primary foci:

1. Help increase asset utilization in gas and electric utilities, and

2. Provide technology leadership in distributed energy systems.

PNL’s offerings for utilities include:

• Advanced power systems, transmission and distribution technologies and services

• Operations and Maintenance technologies and services

• Technology development and competitive analysis for new energy products and services

• Environmental Management

• Organizational Effectiveness assistance

[UFTO’s contact is Carl Imhoff, who reports to Merwin Brown.]

PNL Technologies & Programs


Covered in this report:


  • Decision Support for Plant Operation & Maintenance (DSOM) 4
  • Process Science & Engineering — Electrochemical Processes 5
  • Power Systems 6
  • Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) 8
  • Building Energy Standards Program 8
  • Sensors 9
  • Coatings and Thin Films 10
  • Planning & Analysis 11
  • Strategic Environmental Management 12
  • Environmental Technologies 12
  • Waste Fate & Transport 12
  • Fisheries and Water Resources 13
  • Operational Effectiveness 13

• Decision Support for Plant Operation & Maintenance (DSOM)
Principal Investigators: Don Jarrell 509-372-4096
Dick Meador 509-372-4098

PNL has fully developed this AI software system that provides on-line engineering expertise to assist operators and maintenance personnel. It uses a proven root-cause analysis methodology, RCM techniques, plant aging experience and advanced instrumentation technology, all in an easy to use GUI package.

The first major application, in use at two military bases for theircentral heating plants, is saving $ millions in the first year alone. (The Marine Corp had asked them to help with aging, poorly performing plants, based on PNL’s earlier work on root cause analysis for the military.)

A second application, already developed, is a Pump Motor Diagnostic Model, that provides operators (not engineers) with diagnostics that recognize stresses early, before failure. It uses fuzzy logic and neural net analysis of existing sensor data.

The capabilities appear to go well beyond anything else that is commercially offered, providing a far more sophisticated and complete solution.

A brochure on DSOM (pronounced “dee som”) is available from PNL:

  • A new service business opportunity for utilities — putting this system in at commercial and industrial central heating facilities (a typical site requires several man months to set up). It’s all ready to go.
    The capability could be applied to any process, utility or customer’s. PNL could help develop applications.
    Applicable to utility power plant operations.
    Perhaps a good place to start a T&D RCM development.

• Process Science & Engineering
Electrochemical Processes Ed Baker (Principal Investigator) 509-376-1494

Waste Acid Recovery

Based on the development of a polymer heat exchanger that can withstand 200 ˚C, this is a commercially available system that recovers process acids, and separates metals from waste streams. It is already in use in a few places, and is very broadly applicable, e.g. to galvinizers, platers, and innumerable other industrial processes. It would help keep a customer competitive, by reducing waste disposal costs.

The vendor is Viatec Recovery Systems, in Hastings MI and Richland WA. They are small, and would probably be interested in some kind of teaming to give them access to markets and capital.


Alkane oxidation for partial conversion of methane to methanol. Catalyst is regenerated electrochemically. Could help fill in the summer slump for natural gas demand, making oxygenate for gasoline. Also use at oil wellhead, to capture flared gas. Needs $300-500K for proof of concept. (pat. pend.)

Near Critical Water Oxidation

(TEES, for thermochemical environment and energy system) converts organics to methane and CO2 with high pressure, high temperature water–both energy production and cleanup! Applicable to aqueous waste streams with organics, e.g. food processors could lower costs and even do some cogeneration. Sludges and slurries OK. There’s a small licensee in Southern California.

Supercritical CO2 cleaning —

replaces solvents (e.g. CFCs, carbon tet, trichlor, etc.) The trick is to recover energy during pressurization/depressurization. A DOE funded demo is going in at a foundry in Portland, OR, and a transportable demonstration unit for parts cleaning is on the road, traveling to trade shows. No licensee as yet.

Catalysts by design

For example, membranes reactor to generate hydrogen from methane, avoiding the need for a reformer — important implications for PEM fuel cells.

• Power Systems

Landis Kannberg, Program Manager, 509-375-3919
John DeSteese, Sr. Research Engineer, 509-375-2057
John Hauer, Sr. Program Manager, 509-375-4340

PNL has a long history in RD&D for power systems. They had an active role in power systems since the 70’s, working closely with EPRI and with BPA. Earlier work included studies like estimating the savings from improved voltage regulation, distribution system modernization, evaporative cooling of underground transmission, and future trend assessment for DOE.

More recently, they have been involved in superconductor applications, the distributed utility concept, advanced computation particularly for transmission system dynamic analysis, and a range of special studies, including one on the need for power in the former soviet union.

Superconducting Transformer Evaluation with HTSCs … takes the view that discrete devices like transformers are a better application of superconductors than transmission lines. They found that HTSC transformers would be viable even with a conventional HTSC stability design, in the 30-1000 MVA range. ABB will build one in Europe next year. A likely early justification would be for use as a transportable spare.

PNL suggests an interesting first step: start by cooling an existing conventional Cu transformer with liquid nitrogen, gaining a 2x increase in power density. The next step is to redesign.

(A preprint is available from DeSteese, titled “High Temperature Superconducting Transformer Evaluation”).

Distributed Utility (DU) … PNL was part of the group (with EPRI, NREL, and PG&E) that started an informal collaboration to study DU. PNL’s work was funded by internal “lab directed R&D” (LDRD) money. One of the staff (Kannberg) went on loan to PG&E for a time, to manage the overall effort. Their particular interest is on the effects that implementing a lot of DU resources would have on stability and performance of the transmission system.

PNL did a DU Feeder Analysis for PG&E, using a “synthetic” load data set for each feeder. Based on load duration curves for a given feeder, the estimated the amount of distribution asset deferral possible from adding DU resources to trim the peak load, until load growth becomes overwhelming. This effort included the development of a short term load forecast using load shapes and cluster analysis to generate typical customer profiles. This was used to estimate the potential for DU and DSM and the value of retail distribution wheeling.

Contact Rob Pratt, 509-375-3648
Benefit Cost Analysis of Storage is pursued “technology-blind”, i.e. without a preference for any particular means for storage. A series of studies have focused on SMES. One evaluated SMES in a number of system-specific scenarios for BPA. (J DeSteese,, Applied Superconductivity, Vol 1, # 7-9, pp. 1425, 1993) Others looked at wind integration, and other utility systems. They found that some earlier analyses tended to underestimate SMES benefits because multiple benefits were not evaluated.

Real-Time Power Systems Control (RTPSC) is a big issue for the industry, especially on the question of whether utilities will be willing to share the data needed. A control based strategy will need an extensive information infrastructure, and it needs a fall-back capability, perhaps including repair SWAT teams. There must be complete buy-in to the whole idea, and the conversion may take as much as 2-3 decades.

There appear to be two competing scenarios–one holding that DU will obviate the need for more transmission capacity, and FACTs, which has its own large information needs. PNL prepared a White Paper (Version 1.0 dated March 3, 1994). It outlines a phased strategy for the development and deployment of RTPSC. (It is available from the contacts listed above. A revised version is in progress.)

Workshops held in recent years have reached a consensus on the R&D needs, which include the need for: gaining a better understanding of optimal power system operation, a new generation of on-line sensing, advanced technology, local adaptive computer control, and systems wide engineering research into new algorithms and modeling approaches.

System Monitoring and Control … While some utilities have remote system monitors, there isn’t a comprehensive means to use this data in real time for system operation and control. Everyone from expansion planners to system operators needs measurement-based information.

PNL has developed a Portable Power System Monitoring Unit (Interactive Measurement & Analysis Workstation) which operates over a wide area network. It provides flexible trigger logic and GPS synchronized/phasor measurements, in an integrated open statistical and analytic environment. The workstation also provides dynamic analysis and design.

Visualization …. In comparing model-based vs. data based analysis, it’s been noted that the models tend to be more pessimistic about system behavior when problems occur. Operators need to be able to visualize model outputs, so they can understand, interpret and compare. PNL has applied commercially available visualization packages to represent power system simulation results. As one example, a graphics tool has been used to display output from the Extended Transient Midterm Stability package (ETMSP) from EPRI. This is seen as a first step towards a fully graphic based interface where one environment provides data entry, simulation control and analysis, using the models no longer require separate procedural steps.

Power Conversion … PNL has built and is testing a 5 kW power converter using Pulse Amplitude Synthesis Control. It promises better integration of a variety of DC generators and storage sources with diverse characteristics, making them appear as one integrated resource on the grid. (Visualize a transformer with multiple primaries and a single secondary.) The principal advantage is that the power converter is not dependent on the operation of each of the DC supplies.

They are in the process of lining up a CRADA partnership with a wind power manufacturer who only wants to license it, so other interested parties would be welcome.
• Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS)
Tom Coonelly, Computer Sciences Department, 509-375-6480

FEMIS is an automated decision support system which integrates all phases of emergency management. It was developed for the U.S. Army to deal with chemical weapons, but it is a generic set of tools that can be adapted to any emergency response situation, providing planning, coordination, response, training and exercise support for emergency managers. FEMIS enables the integration and use of real-time data from outside sources (e.g. weather monitors), which can be displayed in geographical and/or tabular form. It tracks resources, task lists, and organizations; it provides event logs; it reminds the user about overdue tasks; and it reports on the status of wide variety of items. FEMIS uses commercial software in a distributed system architecture.

It is a general, “vanilla” capability to bring in information from over a large geographical area and respond to it. One important element–it can provide systematic coordination of different agencies and jurisdictions, i.e. company, local, county, state and federal.

Possibilities for utilities–a new breed of nuclear plant emergency response tools, application to transmission grid management (operations and emergency planning, e.g. storms). Discussions are underway with several potential commercializers, and a helpful overview brochure is available.


• Building Energy Standards Program (BESP)
Jeffery A. Johnson, Program Manager, 509-375-4459

Building Energy Codes Hotline: 1-800-270-2633 answers questions from state and local code officials, builders and others.

BESP did a survey in 1994 of utilities, to find out what strategies are currently being used to promote energy-efficient building design and construction (sponsored by the DOE Office of Codes and Standards). The complete report is available: PNL-9976, “Lessons Learned from New Construction Utility DSM Programs and Their Implications for Implementing Building Energy Codes”

The Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project focuses on developing advanced, computer based building-energy design tools, incorporating new energy-efficiency expertise into systems architects and engineers use to design and operate buildings. A CRADA is underway with the University of Oregon and Softdesk, Inc. to integrate energy analysis into a CAD tool. The product, “Softdesk Energy”, will be distributed to all users of AutoCAD with Softdesk–over 100,000 users. It automatically transfers building geometry data to the energy analysis software, enabling the user to obtain energy load estimates at any time, using the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Method for heating and cooling anywhere in the U.S.

Contact: Michael Brambley, AEDOT Program Manager, 509-375-6875.


BESP publishes a newsletter “Building Systems Update” Contact C.J. Belcher PNL, Box 999, K5-02, Richland WA 99352, FAX 509-375-3614

Also, a new brochure “Enhancing Today’s Buildings, Inventing Tomorrow’s Buildings” will appear next month giving a detailed overview of the work in codes, standards, compliance modeling, building (life-cycle!) energy analysis, metering, data-logging, retrofit analysis, building operations and maintenance assessments, etc..
• Sensors John Hartman, Leader, Electro-Optic Systems Group, 509-375-2771

There is no specifically organized function to manage sensor development at PNL. Instead, there are a large number of informally linked “islands” of expertise across the lab’s organization. John Hartman offers to help pull together the appropriate people to address any particular need or application.

It’s also important to note that sensors are only one of a long list of technical areas that comprise PNL’s “Automation and Measurement Sciences Department”, including robotics, imaging, NDE, instrumentation, and applied mechanics.

PNL views sensors in the context of the entire process and environment they operate in. Starting with a long list of basic sensing mechanisms, a cost-effective and practical device must be developed, together with the associated components to form a sensor system. The sensor system in turn must fit functionally into the larger system of which it is a part.

Thus, the development of a sensor system must draw on a wide range of talents.

Mechanisms include electrochemical, electromagnetic, chemical interaction, mechanical, optical, radiological interaction, electromechanical, and thermoelectric. Practical sensors measure the presence, amount or concentration of chemical species or radiation, mechanical strain, moisture, crack growth, acoustics, fluid flow properties, temperature, em fields, or corrosion.Implementation must take into account materials, signal characteristics, response rates, fabrication, stability, on-board signal handling, packaging, power requirements, calibration, etc. Finally, the balance of system must deal with how the sensor data is transferred and used, in terms of the process hardware, software and human interaction.

Some examples:

Fiber-optic Chemical sensors monitor ground water contamination, using emission, absorption or color-change phenomena.

Piezoelectric Chemical sensors detect small quantities of a chemical species with selective coatings.

Acoustic and Ultra acoustic sensors are applied in diverse areas such as sonar, materials inspection, and near-surface geophysical exploration. Measuring the time of flight of a sound pulse, PNL developed a system to measure the internal temperature of steel at temperatures up to 2000 ˚F. It is now is use in a steel plant’s continuous caster.

Optical sensors have applications ranging from power-beaming in space, to high speed production inspection, to remote temperature measurement.

[For further inquiry: H2 detection is very important for Hanford, and a group at PNL probably has done work in this area that might prove useful for nuclear power plants.]

• Coatings and Thin Films
John Affinito, Staff Scientist, Materials Sciences Dept. 509-375-6942

PNL has developed new processes for rapid vacuum deposition of multilayer polymer and metal films, and is pursuing applications in Li batteries, solar thermal reflector films, magnetic shielding, electrochromic films, supercapacitors, and non-linear optical devices. They achieve higher quality and production rates hundreds of times higher than other methods.

In the Polymer Multi-Layer (PML), monomer fluids are vacuum flash evaporated on the substrate. The fluid condenses as a liquid film and then is radiation cross linked to form a solid polymer film. In a second process, called Liquid Multi-Layer (LML), the liquid is directly coated onto the substrate by extrusion, rollers, spraying or other means, and then is radiation cross linked. Both of these processes are novel, fast, and compatible with simultaneous high rate in-line deposition of other layers by conventional vacuum coating processes (evaporation , sputtering, or plasma enhanced chemical vapor). Several licenses have already been granted.

The supercapacitor consists of thousands of thin alternating layers of polymer and aluminum, and can go to very high voltage. The PML/LML processes inherently eliminate pinholes and other micro defects that can have a significant effect on the properties of the film. There is a licensee — AVX in South Carolina.

The solar reflector film has higher reflectivity and is cheaper than other alternatives, using acrylic/silver/acrylic layers on a polyester substrate.

Optical coatings have been done on elements 2 meters in diameter.

Electrochromic heat mirror film can become cost effective due to the high rate of production.

Micro Heat Exchanger/Heat Pump Kevin Drost, 509-375-2017

PNL is developing a miniaturized vapor-compression cycle heat pump smaller than a dime that could be fabricated by the hundreds in thin layers on a single sheet. Such sheets could be incorporated into walls of buildings, replacing conventional HVAC.

They’ve had success with the evaporator and condenser components, attaining heat transfer rates of 100 watts/cm2. The compressor is more of a challenge. Work is proceeding on two fronts, one a chemical absorption cycle, driven by heat, and the other a miniature electromechanical pump, which is showing earlier promise. Without the compressor, the evaporator and condenser could be configured as a thermo siphon for cooling electronics.

This work is definitely in the “potentially revolutionary” category, though actual commercial applications are years away. Possible uses: Controlling chemical processing very precisely, which for example could make it possible to make a very high performance reformer for use with fuel cells or at the wellhead. Another application: cooling for protective clothing for use in hazardous environments.
• Planning & Analysis Ron Nesse, Sr. Program Manager, 509-376-4217

Until the most recent reorganization (7/95), the Technology Planning & Analysis Center (TPAC) was a part of Battelle matrixed to PNL, with some staff located in Richland and a group in Seattle. As of this writing, the designation TPAC is no longer operative. Many of the people have been assigned to the new Energy Division and some to the Environment Division.

The focus is management of technology, as distinct from technology itself, supporting DOD and DOE in policy, system models, technology assessment, organization design, human factors and legal and regulatory analysis. (Battelle Columbus has a separate commercial consulting practice that does “Technology Management”. Due to common interests, there’s a fair amount of informal collaboration, but no direct reporting relationship.)
Organizational Consulting for the Utility Industry

Jon Olson, Assoc. Center Manager, TPAC (Seattle), 206-528-3200

The Seattle group is focusing more on private industry than do the people in Columbus, and has specifically targeted the utility industry, manufacturing, and biotech. Noting the dramatic changes, new pressures and new business options utilities are facing, they offer services in organizational effectiveness, process redesign, implementation, and leadership training. In addition to on-site consulting and training, they offer training courses and seminars. The group also does Human Factors and Social Research Support of the Nuclear Industry — safety analyses, plant aging, and procedures design for nuclear utilities here and abroad.
Management Analysis Program (MAP) Linda Fassbender, Project Manager, 509-372-4351

MAP has been instrumental in the ongoing reorganization and strategic planning process for the Office of Energy Management in the DOE Office of Utility Technology. MAP facilitated a stakeholder meeting (4/94), provided issue background analyses, and prepared a Strategic Plan document. The Issue papers offered a succinct analysis of economic, environmental, regulatory, institutional and technological trends and issues in the energy industry for Hydrogen, Electricity, Thermal Energy, and Natural Gas. A second stakeholder meeting was planned for mid 1995, however it has been postponed pending the outcome of higher level DOE reorganization and budgetary uncertainties. DOE and PNL want a far greater participation by the utility industry in these deliberations in the future.

Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) is a comprehensive approach to facility energy management developed for DOE and DOD. The software is fuel and technology independent, and optimizes life-cycle cost/savings considering all interactions, including utility rebates. Used at many sites and facilities in conjunction with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) [see the UFTO NREL report], it has shown that modernization investments of 1-2 times annual energy costs can effectively provide lower costs and increased reliability. Training is available.

Global Change Policy Analysis Tools — for EPRI, EPA, DOE, and others. PNL is the heart of a world-wide “virtual ” center on integrated assessment of climate change issues. Perform policy analysis, technology analysis and social science research. Second generation model integrates emissions carbon cycle, climate modeling, ecosystem response, oceans, and human dimensions.


• Strategic Environmental Management

“Life Cycle Assessment” is the new buzzword for analysis of all aspects of a process or technology –cradle-to-grave, overall infrastructure, all the way up and down stream.. Internationally, the ISO 14000 movement (see below) is gathering momentum, and this is in much the same spirit.

DOE, DOD and EPA are sponsoring the Life Cycle Computer Aided Data Project, which includes separate groups for each of a number of various industries. The idea is to create a generic modeling system that more detailed individual process models can fit into.

Contact is Ken Humphreys, 509-372-4279

Battelle Labs (contract manager of PNL) offers consulting inStrategic Environmental Management, which helps companies get beyond the reactive mode and into a proactive “competitive-advantage-mode” on managing their environmental issues.

They and PNL have an initiative to put together the “Industrial Consortium for Environmental Standards, Science and Technology” (ICES). This is a novel approach to creating networks of already existing groups to be a part of the international ISO 14000 efforts. [If you’re familiar with ISO 9000 — the European total quality program that the US just waited to get hit by, this is the environmental analog, being vigorously pursued in 24 countrieswithout government involvement! There is an ad hoc network of US participants, and ICES is a way to get linked into it.] Contact is Gary Morgan. 509-375-2373
• Environmental Technologies Jim Hartley, 509-372-4428

PNL has an extensive program in technology for managing wastes and performing remediation, and in analytical risk-based decision support tools, such as the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS), Remedial Options (a database available commercially from Battelle), Multi-media Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS — prioritizes risk).

As one example, the SAFER code for site characterization was developed at PNL, and CH2M Hill uses it commercially. PNL’s tools have credibility, and DOD buy-in, for evaluating remediation alternatives. They provide support to DOE’s cleanup efforts in the form of products and services. They also do restoration and cleanup work for almost all government sites, usually partnering with vendors. Key Battelle technologies for remediation include:

Soil: Vitrification*, soil washing , bioventing, chemical stabilization, insitu corona, six phase heating**

Water: Chemical barriers, Bio barriers, Extraction/Injection network, electrochemical oxidation

*Terra-Vit is a versatile low cost waste vitrification melter can transform waste into products

**ERACE heats the soil electrically to free less volatile contaminants.

Fate & Transport Management of Electric Utility Wastes

Dhanpat Rai, PI, and Andy Felmy, Group Manager, 509-372-6296 (?)

PNL has performed many projects for EPRI for over 12 years in geohydrochemical analysis, e.g. for coal ash leachates and other utility waste streams. Their expertise includes laboratory and field studies on leaching and modeling (FASTCHEM, FOWL, CHROMAT) etc. The group has published widely — a list of publications is available.

• Fisheries and Water Resources

Marshal Richmond, Sr. Research Engineer, 509-372-6241

Duane Neitzel, Staff Scientist, Aquatic Ecology Group, 509-376-0602

Part of the Earth and Environmental Sciences Center, which encompasses Hydrologic Processes, Marine & Environmental Chemistry, Ocean Processes, and Marine Ecological Processes. Research Facilities include Aerosol Wind Tunnel, Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Geochemistry Lab, Geoscience Visualization Lab, Subsurface Environmental Research Facility, Fish Hatchery and Wet Lab, Remote Sensing, Marine Sciences Lab, Airborne Laboratory

Fisheries: Hatchery and Wet Lab provide controlled conditions, making possible precise determination of impacts on fish populations from such phenomena as O2 deprivation.

River Simulation: system of models that simulate flow hydraulics (flood wave), non uniform sediment transport, contaminant transport. Can handle branched and looped channel systems, operations of dams and reservoirs, heat transport and transfer, and river bed accumulation of sediment and contaminants. It features long term multi year simulation and system operation simulation.

Watershed Modeling: detailed integrated representation of watershed processes. Includes two layer canopy model for evapotranspiration, energy balance for snow accumulation and melt, a two-layer rooting zone model and a saturated subsurface flow model. The landscape is divided into grid cells on Digital Elevation Model data nodes, used to model absorbed radiation, precipitation, air temperature, and down-slope water movement. When linked to a regional climate model, it can generate snow pack, soil moisture and stream flow information that can be used to manage water resources.
• Operational Effectiveness

The Operational Effectiveness Department works for DOE and other governmental clients and private industry on policy and regulatory management, operational assessments and training and evaluation.

Operations Technology Group — testing support to NRC Operator Licensing, direct PNL internal operations assessment, support DOE re operations. Reactor safety evaluation, individual plant evaluations.

Safety & Health Technology Group — develop OSH policy, accident investigation, OSH compliance inspections, training, decontamination and decommissioning support

Safeguards and Security Group — Domestic and international safeguards, protection programs, information security, physical security and protective force support, multimedia training

PNL Contacts

General phone # 509-375-2121

Mailing Address:
Pacific Northwest Laboratories
Battelle Boulevard
P.O. Box 999
Richland WA 99352
The primary contacts for UFTO are:

Carl Imhoff 509-375-4328

Energy Programs Manager
Merwin Brown 509-372-6323
Director, Energy Technologies Dept.


Information Source Contacts
Katie Larson 509-375-3698

Energy Division Communications
Media Relations: Jerry Holloway 509-375-2007

Technology Transfer Opportunities – Berkeley National Laboratory

Final Report

Technology Transfer Opportunities in the National Laboratories

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Berkeley, California

June 1995

Prepared for:

Utility Federal Technology Opportunities (UFTO)


Edward Beardsworth


This report is part of a series examining technology opportunities at National Laboratories of possible interest to electric utilities





1. Summary

2 LBL Organization

3. LBL Technologies & Programs

10. LBL Contacts


This report is proprietary and confidential. It is for internal use by personnel of companies that are subscribers in the UFTO multi-client program. It is not to be otherwise copied or distributed except as authorized in writing.



This report details findings about technology and technology transfer opportunities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL)that might be of strategic interest to electric utilities. It is based on two visits to LBL in February and May 1995, as part of the UFTO multiclient project.


Noting the tremendous scope of research underway in the research facilities of the U.S. government, and a very strong impetus on the government’s part to foster commercial partnering with industry and applications of the technology it has developed, the UFTO program has been established as a multi-client study of the opportunities thus afforded electric utilities.

LBL Organization

Unlike the matrix structure common at other DOE labs, LBL has a straight line management organizational structure, and they’ve mostly eliminated (except on the administration side) the layer of managment known as “ALD’s” or Associate Laboratory Directorates seen at many other labs.

Nine technical divisions report directly to the Laboratory Director, C. V. Shank, and several others report to the ALD for Operations. There are also a number of Research Centers and User Facilities within the various divisions.

LBL is a major multiprogram lab managed by the University of California (as are Livermore and Los Alamos), with more than 3000 employees, a third of which are scientists and engineers. The annual budget is over $250 million. LBL is situated adjacent to the Berkeley campus of the University of California, and there is a great deal of collaboration and overlap between the two organizations. Many of the staff hold dual appointments, and UC graduate students often work in LBL programs (notably reducing the cost of research!). No classified work is done at LBL, so security is light, contributing to a campus-like atmosphere.

Administrative relationships can become quite complex. Projects, programs or “centers” may be either university or lab-based. One particularly noteworthy instance is the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), which is actually part of UC’s quasi-independent Energy Institute, and until recently was funded by California utilities and state agencies. It is set up as a CRADA between LBL and the California utilities. Its technical resources could become more broadly available as they seek new roles and sources of funding.

Virtually all of the programs in the Energy and Environment Division are relevant to the electric utility industry, as are portions of other divisions(e.g. Materials, Chemical and Earth Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences). Though the organizational structure is not ideally suited to cross-cutting activities, collaboration and joint efforts are not uncommon.

Within Energy and Environment, areas of interest include building energy efficiency, energy analysis, lighting technology, combustion cleanup, and energy conversion and storage. LBL has very strong programs in these areas, however the dissemination of results and interaction with industry has been somewhat limited, suggesting a possible underutilization of these resources by utilities which UFTO can help to overcome.

Generally speaking, much of LBL’s work in these areas tends to be informational or precompetitive. However there are also a number of specific developments underway with industrial partners, and some that could represent important strategic technology opportunities for utilities.

One other general point: each of the labs annually publishes an “Institutional Plan”, which is organized according to which DOE Program Office supports the work, not the lab’s own organizational structure. Thus a “mapping” between the two structures is required to be able to see the work of the groups within a lab. In most instances, divisions and programs also publish annual reports, providing detailed though not always current accounts of the work

General Telephone # is (510) 486-4000

LBL Technologies & Programs


Topics Covered in this Report:

• Energy in Buildings

• Lighting

• Energy Analysis

• Environmental Research (Combustion and Air Quality)

• Information & Computer Sciences

• Materials Science

• Electrochemistry–Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells

• Geothermal Energy


Energy in Buildings

LBL is particularly strong in work on Energy in Buildings from a number of points of view, in three distinct programs and a “Center”, plus the CIEE.

1. Indoor Environment Program, Joan Daisey, 510-486-7491
Ventilation, infiltration, ducts, efficiency in existing buildings, radon, indoor air pollutants, exposure and risk assessment, indoor air quality standards, etc.

• Duct Sealing Technology Mark Modera 510-486-4678, Max Sherman 510-486-4022

Energy losses from leaks in ducts are variously estimated to account for as much as 1/3 of the energy used in residential air-distribution heating and cooling. LBL has developed a technique for sealing leaks in existing systems. Analogous to “stopleak” used in automobile cooling systems, an aerosol is injected into the system which deposits itself at leaks, closing them off. Developed at LBL with support of CIEE, it is to be commercialized by EPRI, acting as a member of CIEE. (Agreements currently in negotiation.)

• Indoor Air Quality

Becoming more of an issue. Lawsuits more common. Standards being revised. Need better sensors for commercial use. Direct measurement more meaningful than specifying air change rates. LBL working on specific species, e.g. VOCs, CO, etc. Environmental Chambers allow detailed simulation and test of emissions from indoor sources.

2. Building Energy Analysis (in the Energy Analysis Program) Alan Meier, 510-486-4740
Data compilation, analysis of measured data (meta analysis across all available studies), assessment of efficiency impacts of technologies and programs, DEEP (Database on Energy Efficiency Programs), impact of high albedo surfaces, shade trees, etc., monitoring building performance, alternatives to compressive cooling, load shape estimation, urban climate, public housing.

3. Building Technologies Program , Stephen Selkowitz, 510-486-5064
Windows and daylighting, building energy simulation tools, lighting systems.

• Electrochromic Window Coatings (“smart windows”) can vary light transmission by from10-80% with the application of a low dc voltage; can be controlled to maintain constant light levels with dimmable electric lighting, control solar heat gain, and result in substantial overall energy savings and load control.

LBL is technical lead for DOE, and holds patents for two families of polymers for use in these coatings, and has CRADAs underway with Dow Chemical. Expect commercial prototypes in 2-3 years. Research field tests are already underway. There will be demos with utilities.

• Selective (“low-E”) Coatings pass visible light and block infrared. LBL doing research in the durability and performance of these coatings.

• Advanced Insulating Windows (“Superwindows”) include coatings and gas filled systems. LBL developed a concept which has been commercialized (with utility co-supported field tests

• Daylighting Design Tools

4. Center for Building Science , Evan Mills, 510-486-6784
A “home” for the three above programs, serving as a national and international source of information, technical support to policymakers, support to new institutions and demonstration programs, facilitate tech transfer.

“From the Lab to the MarketPlace–Making America’s Buildings More Efficient”, Jan, 1995

(40 page overview of building programs)

Center for Building Science News

(contact Ralph McLaughlin, 510-486-4508–also for list of the Center’s publications.)

5. California Institute for Energy Efficiency(CIEE),

Jim Cole, Director, or Carl Blumstein, Assoc. Director, 510-642-9588
This is a separate entity of the University of California — a collaborative of the California PUC and Energy Commission, the California electric and gas utilities, Universities, and LBL, focused directly at advancing technology for energy efficiency in California (all sectors) mid to long term.

CIEE may be an interesting target of opportunity to UFTO members. Its funding has been drastically cut — Calif. utilities are no longer paying dues. CIEE has funds to keep going for another 2 years, as it looks at alternatives for the future, one of which is to broaden its attention outside California.

CIEE may be a useful resource to utilities elsewhere, with its expertise and repository of technical information (available free). Also, there are ongoing projects which could be tuned or redirected to the interests of new players. As just one example, Building Performance Measurement, Operation & Control: Diagnostics for Commissioning and Operation has DOE support, and may be a “line of business” opportunity for utilities. An automated system is being developed that will help operators diagnose performance degradation, so that buildings can be operated “to spec”. There is also work in low NOx burners, alternatives to compressor cooling, HVAC distribution systems, and many other areas.



CIEE 1992 Annual Report

CIEE 1993 Annual Report

1994 Annual Conference Program

“Research News” (newsletter discontinued. back issues available)

Various technical reports


Lighting Systems, Francis Rubinstein, 510-486-4096

LBL is a lead player in lighting technology development, with its extensive R&D program in advanced lighting sources, fixture design, measurement, advanced controls, and education. (A detailed list of Publications of the Lighting Group is available. 510-486-5388)

For lighting, there are many different approaches appropriate in different applications and niches. There isn’t and won’t be a single “magic bullet” new technology. Utilities need to be informed about what is available on the market but is still underutilized (e.g. adv. controls, advanced compact flourescents, etc.) There are different solutions in different niches.

The state of the art in control systems doesn’t yet permit the specifying of useable systems that will achieve energy savings. This is a subject of particular interest at LBL, which is working with the NIST sponsored effort with ASHRAE standards committee to establish the “BACKNET” building automation energy managment protocol. LBL is also working with a utility and the GSA to propose a major advanced lighting control demonstration project in a Federal building. It is the area for utilities to get involved in, as relamping and reballasting become less interesting. Note that ESCOs can count on savings from relamping, but controls are unfamiliar, and can confuse their basic proposition of assured shared savings.

Utility Retrofit Energy Efficiency Program (UREEP): a new proposed program to support utility customer service programs with integrated training and education on advanced lighting retrofit. Will provide participating utilities with practical information and comprehensive guidelines and procedures to use with their customers. A number of utilities have already expressed interest in joining. Michael Siminovitch, 510-486-5863.

Sulfur Lamp: LBL is playing a major role in development and testing. The DOE press releases last year got a lot of attention, but this is still a long way from commercial availability. Generally, high efficiency comes with high intensity, so it means that a way to distribute the light from a single point (not just a fixture) is needed, thus the light pipe configuration. Demo applications/sites will be chosen soon. Interested utilities should contact LBL: Francis Rubinstein, 510-486-4096

Tests and Measurements: LBL has unique measurement programs and equipment, and can perform tests on prototype new lighting technologies. As one example, there is no data available on the angular sensitivity of photosensors, but LBL is performing these measurements. LBL won’t permit its name to be used for commercial testimonial purposes, nor will they compete with commercial test labs.

Advanced Lighting Guidelines: 1993 is a DOE report (DOE/EE-0008) provides an overview of specific lighting technologies and design applications for energy efficient lighting. The report assesses lighting strategies, discusses issues, and explains how to obtain quality lighting design and consulting services. Each of 10 sections provide a technology overview, discussing products on the market. For use by electric utility personnel involved in lighting programs, the report is also used at FEMP training sessions. (The work was cofunded by EPRI and the Calif. Energy Commission, each of whom also published the same document under their own respective covers.)


[Note: The Lighting Research Center at RPI in NY conducts the National Lighting Product Information Program (NLPIP), funded by a number of utilties, EPA, DOE, and others. NLPIP publishes “Specifier Reports” and “Lighting Answers”, providing detailed technical information on commercial products. tel 518-276-8716.]


Energy Analysis Program, Mark Levine, Program Leader, 510-486-5238

Steve Weil, Deputy ” ” , 510-486-5396

List of Publications; Current Projects — available from Karen Olson, 510-486-5974.

• Utility Planning and Policy, Ed Kahn, 510-486-6525

Nationally recognized experts in utility industry analysis, funded by DOE Office of Utility Technology (OUT), and no utility funding. The product is “analysis”. Studies have included competition and bulk power markets, the cost of electricity from IPPs, a comparative analysis of the impact of power purchases on utility cost of capital, transmission pricing, IRP methods and case studies, industry evolution, DSM resource characterization, gas DSM and fuel switching, DSM bidding experience, “The Cost & Performance of Utility Commercial Lghting Programs”, J. Eto, etal., LBL-34967, May 94

The group takes on potentially controversial industry wide issues, and has a reputation for objectivity. An annotated publications list, and copies of the publications, are available from

Patty Juergens, Fax # 510-486-6996 or email:


• International Energy & Environment Studies:

– OECD transportation analysis, energy efficiency; structure of demand in Europe and FSU; Lee Schipper

– Energy data, trends and scenarios for developing countries– Jayant Sathaye

– Global climate, developing country economics; training — Steve Weil, Mark Levine

– Energy Business Development–China, India, S. America – the politics, policies, local liaison, intelligence gathering, etc.; early stage plans to couple efficiency and power plant projects.

– Energy in China, e.g. report in preparation and workshop Fall ’95 on business opportunities for cogeneration in China; Mark Levine


• Energy Conservation Policy, Jim McMahon, Leader, 510-486-6049

Engineering economics of appliances. Analyze and develop appliance standards. Engineering assessments. Assess impact of standards on manufacturers; forecast sales/prices.

“Economic and Technical Analysis of US Appliance Efficiency Standards” — series of major technical support documents–DOE/EE-0009, Vol 1-3.

• Energy Efficiency Markets and Forecasts, Jon Koomey, 510-486-5974

National and regional level residential end-use forecasting model is fine-grained with respect to technologies and specific end uses. (LBL developed default data for REEPS and COMMEND). Conservation supply curves. Consumer behavior and market failures.

• Building Energy Analysis See description above (page 3).

Environmental Research, Nancy Brown, Program Leader, 510-486-4241

• Air Quality: Urban and Regional Air Pollution, Global Climate Change

(e.g. Reformulated Fuel effects study, Ammonia inventory, atmospheric aerosols, etc.)

• Combustion Research: Chemistry, mixing, diagnostics, …

Reactive Flow Modeling (reaction dynamics, rate coeff prediction, Nitrogen chemistry, reduced mechanisms, emissions inventories, turbulence chemistry interactions)

(e.g. Pollutant control, gas turbines, incineration, fire safety, health effects assessement)

• Low NOx Swirl Burner — ultra lean premix flame stabilized by weak swirl, 4-7 ppm NO, Applicable to wide range of applications, from home furnaces to large boilers and power systems. Robert Cheng, 510-486-5438

• PHOSNOX process, developed in 1990, removes NOx from Flue Gas simultaneously with SOx removal in existing wet FGD systems. NO is oxidized into more soluble NO2, by the addition of yellow phosphorus P4 to the scrubbing solution. Phosphoric acid is a recoverable byproduct. Process would be cheap and effective, but perceived safety issues have blocked further development. (Bechtel was actively promoting this for some time.) Ted Chang, 510-486-5125

• Iron Thiochelate is a more recent development addressing the same issue. The catalyst is added to the limestone in wet scrubbers to absorb NO. The catalyst is then regenerated as the bound NO is reduced to ammonia by electrochemical reduction [See Nature, v. 369, 12 May 94, p. 139.]. In mid May 95, a patent application was filed for a new simpler reduction technique, in which the liquor is passed through a column of Fe chips.

WANTED: a demo host, slip stream or pilot scale. Ted Chang, 510-486-5125

• Pozone uses yellow phosphorus in water to generate Ozone for bleaching paper pulp, and in other applications where the presence of phospate “contamination” isn’t an obstacle. International Paper is doing benchtests. Costs are estimated to be 1/2 to 1/3 (with credit for selling the phosphate byproduct) that of electrically produced ozone. Another possible application — regenerating active carbon that’s loaded with contaminants–could be done locally instead of at the very few licensed facilities. Ted Chang, 510-486-5125

• A novel catalyst offers a breakthrough in treating SO2 gas from coal-fired power plants, converting 98% of it to elemental sulfur. The Ralph M. Parsons Co. has just been granted an exclusive license. Ted Chang, 510-486-5125

Information & Computer Sciences, Stu Loken, Director 510-486-7474

This division includes both the operation of internal lab computer and information systems (technical and administrative information processing, and information services such as publications and the library) and research in information sciences, focusing primarily on network issues.

In this latter role, LBL has played a major part over the years in the formulation of the internet. In fact, TCP/IP traces back to LBL. The network research group deals with bandwidth allocation and scaling issues associated with the rapid growth in the size of the network.

The utility industry is expected to be a major player in the NII, because of the direct benefits to utilities and their customers. It’s already apparent that energy management programs and demonstrations will require such a large number of addresses on the network as to raise a problem that hasn’t really been addressed as yet.

In this light, LBL recognizes that its interactions with utilities have been too limited, and they are just beginning a process of self-education and outreach to the industry. They are looking for partners to work with them, particularly on integrating energy management equipment into network applications.

Materials Science, Joel Ager, 510-486-6715

High degree of involvement with industry, addressing fundamental materials development issues, e.g. high temperature superconductor sensors (squids), tough silicon carbide composites, ultra-hard coatings, crack-path prediction in layered structures, failure mechanism identification in nickel oxide scales (with EPRI), in-situ corrosion study of stainless steel (also EPRI).


The super-hard (diamond like) coatings can now be applied cost effectively on large objects (see UFTO Flash 3/21/95).

DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials (CSP), funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Science, is a network involving 12 of the major DOE labs, to support fundamental research and establish partnerships among the Labs, universities and Industry to shorten the time between development and applications. Steering Groups and a project plan exist for each of more than a 1/2 dozen topics, including Conventional and Superplastic Metal Forming, Materials Joining, Processing for Surface Hardness, and Mechanically Reliable Surface Oxides for High Temperature Corrosion Resistance, plus several dealing with microstructures. A 60 page description of the CSP is available from DOE. [I’ll obtain copies for anyone who wants one.]


Energy Conversion and Storage

LBL’s efforts in this arena are wide ranging, from advanced electrodes, to modeling, surface layer physics, and applied research in lithium and zinc based battery systems. There may be less of a place for direct interaction with utilities, as the work tends to emphasize research, not devices. LBL could be helpful, however, as an objective advisor to utilities about technology.

Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells, Frank McLarnon, 510-486-4636

Berkeley Electrochemical Research Center is a world center for basic electrochemical engineering research, operated as a collaboration between LBL and UC Berkeley. It manages a substantial portion of DOE’s applied battery and EC research (the Exploratory Technology Research Program for Electrochemical Energy Storage), and provides technical guidance to research projects at other institutions around the country.

Geothermal Energy, Jane Long, Head, Energy and Resource Development, 510-486-6697

Geothermal reservoir analysis for specific sites–optimization, recharge, performance modeling, geochemistry, instrumentation, etc. Analysis tools applicable to radwaste and ground water issues.

Ground Source Heat Pumps: proposal for optimization of subsurface part of the system, effects of geology and hydrology on performance. Also, internal (“lab-directed research”) proposal to study ground-source “coolth”.


LBL Contacts (general phone # is 510-486-4000)

The primary contact for UFTO is:

Donald F. Grether, Deputy Division Director, Energy & Environment Division



Technology Transfer:

Rod Fleischman, Assoc Lab Director, Industry & Government Partnerships


Cheryl Fragiadakis, Head, Tech Transfer Dept. 510-486-7020

Bruce Davies, Marketing Manager, 510-486-6461

Industry & Government Partnerships, (quarterly, beginning 1/95) is a new newsletter, listing new CRADAs and licenses issued. Contact Cathy Langridge, 510-486-5894

Information Source Contacts / Technical Information Services:


Public Information Department: 510-486-5771


LBL Publications:

5 Year Institutional Plan

LBL 1994 (annual) Report to the Regents, University of California

Energy & Environment Division (contact Lila Schwartz, 510-486-4098):

Program Annual Reports:

Environmental Research

Energy Conversion and Storage

Energy Analysis

Indoor Environment Program

Buildings Technology Program

Energy & Environment Divison Newsletter, (monthly)

Energy & Environment Divison brochure (PUB-734 6/94)